• It is a compulsory contribution imposed by a public authority. • It is the main source of income for public authorities.

1.Capital formation is important in all economic model. 2.Principal methods of financing :taxation, borrowings and foreign aid. 3.Means of resource mobilization, highly dependable, no strings attached.` 4.Instrument for transferring purchasing power from individual to government . 5. Flexible depending on the requirements.

1.Problems related to economic growth, removal of poverty and inequalities, chronic unemployment and regional disparities for e.g. India 2. Tax policy to yield increased revenues to the government, also conform to criteria of buoyancy and elasticity 3. Equity and resource mobilizations dictate that the tax burden should be evenly distributed between sectors and individuals. e.g.agriculture sector. 4. Tax system to promote private savings and direct them into investment in priority industries ( India having saving rate but low investment rate.)

Directly paid by the persons on whom it is legally imposed Impact is on the same persons who pays the tax Indirectly paid by the other persons Impact is on many persons

Tax burden cannot be shifted Tax burden can shift to the to other persons and the other persons (other than the consumer directly pay the to payee). the local Government, State government, Center Government. Example:Income tax ,house Consumption taxes, excise property tax, land and estate duties, sales tax, octroi. tax or service tax

Direct Taxes J.S.Mill –“direct tax is demanded from the very persons who, it is intended or desired ,should pay it” Indirect Taxes J.S.Mill –“Indirect tax is demanded from the very persons in the expectation and intention that he shall indemnify himself at the expanse of others

1950-51 Direct tax 43% Indirect Tax 57% Total Tax Revenue 100% 1990-1991 16% 84% 100% 2003-04 38% 62% 100%

Note: Figures in percentages of total Tax Revenue Source: Indian Economy, Ruddar Datt and Sundhararam, 2004


Economy The tax payer makes the payment to the state directly and deducting the cost of collection, which directly adds up to the State’s income. 2. Certainty Proper provision for the payment of taxes on times, easy for the State to make financial plans . 3. Elasticity The yield from direct tax increases with an increase in wealth and population 4. Social effects & Distributive justice Redistributes the fruits of developments, develop civic consciousness among tax-payers. Reduce the glaring inequalities in the distribution of wealth and income. Income tax and inheritance taxes are useful in this direction.

1 Convenience Indirect taxes are convenient to the tax payers and the State both .The tax –payer makes the payment when he purchases commodities in small amount and he does not feel them. The State can collect them in bulk from importers, exporters and producers. 2. Elasticity With proper adjustments indirect taxes are elastic sources of revenue. If they are imposed on commodities of wide consumption, the revenue from them can increase to a great extent.

3. Diffculty of evasion
Ordinarily, indirect taxes cannot be easily evaded. They are included in the prices of commodities and every time a commodity is purchased, the purchaser pays the tax

Temporary and Permanent Taxes

Temporary taxes

Permanent taxes

A tax on war profits to pay off Taxes on income a large amount of debt in a short period of time. Example:Kargil war tax Example: property tax

Specific taxes Ad valorem taxes

A physical measurement like Tax on value of a commodity the weight or volume of a commodity

Example : water tax

Example :Finished goods

Single taxes

Multiple taxes

The single tax is the tax on some A multiple tax system is preferably one-class of commodities only in the preferable to a single tax system, but revenue system of a country. too great a multiplicity of taxes would be undesirable.

The Physiocrats proposed a single A large number of taxes, however tax on the economic rent of land. small, would involve a large cost and vexation in collection .it if therefore, a best rely on a few substantial taxes for the bulk of the revenue.


Example: Yarn, Textile

Graduation taxation

Progressive taxation When tax rate rises with an increases in income,etc graduate is upwards and is known as progressive taxation It has forms :Step system and Sad system Step system: Specific rates were laid down for the whole of the income. Hence under this income, the tax amount did not rise gradually, but it moved by leap or jumps Slab system: The tax is calculated or different slabs of income

A variation in the rate of tax with variation in the amount on income,property,etc

Example: property tax

Example: income tax

NATIONAL TAXES Collected by the central government like (income,wealth,corporate tax ,custom duties). STATES TAXES On goods and services manufactured and produces in the state, on land and real estate transactions (stamp duties). LOCAL TAXES By ULB/ Municipalities / Municipal Corporate/Development Authorities (vacant land taxes,Sanitation ,Water and Property Tax.)

The Incidence of tax
When a tax is imposed, or its rates etc, are changed, the effects are felt in different spheres of the economy. The incidence of tax is “the resulting changes in the distribution of income available for private uses”,-Musgrave • Incidence of tax is judged in terms of the money burden of the tax. • Incidence lies upon that final source from which the tax money comes.

Two kinds of tax incidences
Specific tax incidence Differential tax incidence

• Double taxation is the case where two or more countries concurrently tax the same tax payers on account of the same subject matters of tax (such as income, property, etc). • Double taxation generally arises on account of conflicting criteria adopted by different countries to levy the taxes.

• •

Two or more governments may enter into an agreement where by it is ensured that the same subject matter is not taxed by two governments. This solution would be called avoidance of double taxation. Governments may enter into an agreement whereby the economic units liable to double taxation are provided partial relief. A country may decide to give unilateral tax relief to its own subjects even when no tax agreement exists with other countries. India has entered into comprehensive agreement for the advantage of double taxation of income with several countries including Austria, Belgium, and The federal republic of Germany, France, Japan and the Scandinavian countries.


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