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# Raster and

Vector Data
Models
Outlines
 Introduction
 Raster and Vector Data Models
 Raster Data
 Vector Data
 Raster and Vector Structures
 Raster and Vector Advantages and
What are the two types
of Data Models?
 Spatial data in GIS has two primary
data formats: raster and vector.

whereas

##  vector is more like a drawn map.

Raster and Vector Data
 Vector format has points, lines, polygons
that appear normal, much like a map.

##  Raster format generalizes the scene into

a grid of cells, each with a code to
indicate the feature being depicted. The
cell is the minimum mapping unit.
Raster and Vector
Data

## Raster has generalized

reality: all of the features in
the cell area are reduced to
a single cell identity.
VECTOR AND RASTER DATA STRUCTURE
RASTER CELL CODING: CASE OF
MULTIPLE LANDUSE IN ONE CELL
Raster and Vector Data Models
 Raster: cell’s value or code
represents all of the features
within the grid,
 it does not maintain true size,

## shape, or location for individual

features.
 Even where “nothing” exists (no

## data), the cells must be coded.

Raster and Vector Data Models
 Vectors: are data elements
describing position and
direction.
 Vector is the map-like drawing

of features
 Therefore, shape is better

retained.
 Vector is much more spatially

## accurate than the raster format.

RASTER AND VECTOR DATA MODELS
RASTER AND VECTOR DATA MODELS
POINT FEATURE
Raster Data

 Raster Coding
 Resolution

##  Gridding and Linear

Features
 Raster Precision and

Accuracy
Raster Data Sources
 Satellite imagery
 Landsat data; SPOT data
 Existing cell-based data
 DEM; Arc/Info Grid; GRASS; IDRISI
 Scanned imagery
 aerial photographs; hard copy maps
 Vector--to--raster conversion
Raster Coding
 In the data entry process,
maps can be digitized or
scanned
 at a selected cell size and

##  each cell assigned a code

or value.
Raster Coding
 The cell size can be adjusted
according to the grid
structure or by ground units,
also termed resolution.

##  There are three basic and

assigning cell codes.
Raster Coding Methods
 Presence/Absence: is the most
basic method and to record a
feature if some of it occurs in the
cell space.

##  Cell Center: involves reading only

the center of the cell and assigning
the code accordingly.

##  Not good for points or lines.

Raster Coding Methods
 Dominant Area: to assign
the cell code to the feature
with the largest (dominant)
share of the cell.

##  This is suitable primarily for

polygons.
Raster Coding Methods
 Percent Coverage: a more

##  To separate each feature

for coding into individual
themes and then assign
values that show its
percent cover in each cell.
Raster Coding Methods
Raster Coding Methods
Raster Coding
Problems
 Raster coding produces
spatial inaccuracies
Raster Coding Problems
Raster Coding Problems
Raster Coding Problems
Raster Coding Problems
Solution
 One possible solution is to
increase the resolution by
increasing the number of
cells,

##  making each one smaller

and therefore more
sensitive to accurate
classification.
Raster Mapping
 A major problem with the
raster structure is that the
shape of features is forced
into an artificial grid cell
format.
Raster Mapping
 For right-angled features, such
as square agricultural fields or
rectangular political districts,
this may not present a major
problem.

##  However, for many features, size

and shape can become
undesirably distorted.
Raster Mapping
Resolution
 Increasing the number of cells on a
data set increases spatial resolution,
which helps to increase spatial
accuracy.

##  One advantage to using relatively few

cells is the short processing time and
ease of analysis.
Raster Resolution
Gridding and Linear
Features
 Low-resolution raster results in a
rather generalized and crude
shape.
 High-resolution raster shape
appears more realistic,
 though still a long way from the
vector shape and spatial
accuracy.
Features
Raster Precision and
Accuracy
 Precision (the exact location) and
accuracy (maximum spatial truth) are
often a problem for Raster Data.

##  Because the raster cell is the

maximum resolution and the
minimum mapping unit,

##  there is no way to know exactly

where small feature occurs.
Spatial Resolution:
Selected Satellite Systems

## Image Source:Korte GIS Book. p 77

Raster Precision and Accuracy
 Smaller cells have less spatial
error because the area of doubt
is smaller.

##  Uncertainty becomes greater

when measuring across cells.

##  Area measurement are also

generalized.
Vector Data
 Vector features appear more realistic than raster
features and have better spatial accuracy.
 Vector features are defined primarily by their

## shapes, more specifically by the outline of their

shapes.
 The vector system is a coordinate-based data

structure.
Vector Data
 Shape points are the ends
and bends that define the
feature’s outline.

##  At the beginning and end of

every line or polygon
feature is a node.
Vector Data
 At each bend (change of
direction) is a vertex (plural:
vertices).

##  Node are end points and vertices

are between, defining the shape.

##  Point features are standalone

nodes.
Vector Data
 Arcs connect the shape points to draw
the feature’s outline.
 Arcs are vectors or data structure
paths that are not part of the actual
stored data elements;
 they are not real lines,

##  but define and present the connection

between shape points.
Vector Data
 Vector system data files
store only the coordinate of
each node and vertex;

##  the hardware draws the

connecting chain segments.
Vector Data
The vector data structure
is also known as an arc-
node model because it
uses

##  chains (arcs) and

 end points (nodes).
VECTOR DATA: GIS FEATURE
Raster and Vector
Structures
 Raster and vector
structure have different
methods of storing and
displaying spatial data.
Raster and Vector
Structures
 Raster cells are stored and
displayed as cells,
 but in the vector format

## only the nodes and vertices

are stored.
 This results in considerable

## data storage differences.

Raster and Vector
Structures
 A point in a raster system is a
single cell,

##  but in a vector system it is only a

node represented by a symbol
with its coordinate position noted.
Raster and Vector
Structures
 A simple line in a raster system
consists of a sequence of cells.

##  In a vector system, a simple line

consists of two nodes and a ARC
that connects them.
Raster and Vector
Structures
 A more complex raster line
consists of connected cells.

##  Complex lines in the vector

format have vertices to
mark changes in direction,
with nodes at each end.
Raster and Vector
Structures
 Raster polygons are filled with cells.
 For single polygons, the vector

## format usually has a single node and

several vertices to mark the
boundary direction changes.
Raster and Vector
Structures
 Connected polygons are
simply two blocks of cells in
the raster format,

##  but in vector they share a

common border and some
common nodes.
Raster to Vector
Conversion
There are at least four basic reasons to convert from
raster to vector:
(1) better visual appearance of vector features;
(2) some plotter work only on vector data;
(3) comparison with vector data is best when both
data files have identical formats;
Raster to Vector
Conversion
Fourth basic reasonto convert from
raster to vector:
(4) some GIS systems have vectors as
the central operating data structure.

##  Rasterization of vector data is often

called gridding.
 A relatively simple data structure;

analysis easier.

##  The computer platform can be

“low tech” and inexpensive.
 Remote sensing imagery is typically
obtained in raster format.

##  Modeling is the creation of a

generalized data file or a set of
universal procedures to accomplish a
 Spatial inaccuracies

##  Because each cell tends to

generalize a landscape, the
result is relatively low
resolution compared to the
vector format.
 Because of spatial inaccuracies
caused by data generalization, a
raster format cannot tell
precisely what exists at a given
location.

##  Each cell must have a code,

even where nothing exists.
 Vector data is more map-like.
 Is very high resolution.

accuracy.

##  The general public usually understands what is

shown on vector maps.

##  Vector data can be topological.

 May be more difficult to manage than
raster formats.

machines.

##  The use of better computers, increased

management needs, and other
considerations often make the vector
format more expensive.