HISTORY OF NETWORK

Overview of wireless and mobile networks History and evolution Classification Wireless communication fundamentals Wireless transmission Multiple access Medium access control

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• Wireless transmission fundamentals • Frequency spectrum • Radio propagation
– Signals and antennas – Modulation – Channel conditions – Effects of mobility

• Multiple access • Medium access control
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Signals

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Antennas

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Antenna range

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Signal propagation

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Effects of mobility

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Modulation Definition: transforming the information to be transmitted into a format suitable for the used medium Motivation Smaller antennas Frequency division multiplexing Media characteristics (robustness, efficiency, bandwidth) Types of modulation Analog modulation, usage examples: AM and FM radio, 1G cellular networks Digital modulation, usage examples: 2G and 3G cellular networks, WiFi, WiMax, Bluetooth, Zigbee, ...
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Analog modulation

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Digital modulation

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Duplexing Motivation: simultaneous two-way communication Separate uplink and downlink Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) Each direction uses a different frequency band Transmitting and receving can occur at the same time Time Division Duplexing (TDD) Switch between directions quickly such that user doesn’t notice Transmitting and receiving can occur in the same frequency band

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Multiplexing

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Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)

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Time division multiple access (TDMA)

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F/TDMA

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Code division multiple access (CDMA)

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Spread spectrum

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Motivation for spread spectrum

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Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)

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Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS)

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Space division multiple access (SDMA)

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Medium access control (MAC) Motivation Typically there are more devices than channels Need to allocate channel access to devices on demand MAC protocol Coordinates access to a shared medium: which device should get access, when and how? Define rules that allow multiple devices to access the medium in an efficient, fair and stable manner Classification Centralized vs. Distributed Schedule/Reservation based vs. Random/contention based access
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ALOHA

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Slotted ALOHA

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Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA)

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CSMA with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)

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Hidden terminal problem

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CSMA with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA)

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Near-far effect

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SOURCES
• Kaustubh Phanse, Communications Research Group, Department of Information Technology, UPPSALA Universitet

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