1.2K views

Uploaded by yexrewraigne9202

- Sheet 11 Problems Sheet on Fluids
- Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics
- Norriseal Cantilever Level Controller
- Archimedes Law Lesson Plan
- fluid mech_1.70
- 2134 Lab Nishant
- 250 TOP Fluid Mechanics
- 78407099-CHEVRON-Flow-Rates-and-Shock-Pressures-Through-Tube-Ruptures-Heat-Exchanger[1].pdf
- VLP Output
- Investigatry Project
- 3.5 Archimedes
- Aquatic Physical Therapy
- E6 Archimedes
- fluids-ds
- Fluid Mechanics
- Vibrations
- 10_LectureOutline
- Quick Revision Paper 3 Section b Physics Spm
- fluids manual.docx
- murteza with comments 2

You are on page 1of 41

MECHANICS

Images from:http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/character.html

• Solids

– tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern

– retains a fixed volume and shape

– not easily compressible

– doesn’t easily flow

Liquids

close together with no regular arrangement

assumes the shape of the part of the container which it

occupies

not easily compressible, flow easily

Gas

well separated with no regular arrangement

assumes the shape of the part of the container

easily compressible, flow easily

Fluid statics

• Density

• Pressure

• Buoyancy

Fluid dynamics

• Continuity equation

• Bernoulli’s equation

Density Material

Air (1 atm, 200 C)

Density, kg/m3

1.21

Water 0.998 x 103

ρ=

Blood 1.060 x 103

Seawater 1.024 x 103

V Styrofoam

Gold

1 x 102

19.3 x 103

Units :

• Density may vary from point to point

1 kg/m = 10 g/cm

3 -3 3

• Solids and liquids: ρ independent of T & P

Gases: strongly dependent on T & P

Specific gravity/relative density

ρ material

ρ SG =

ρ water

• ρ > 1 object sinks under water

ρ < 1 object floats over water

Pressure

Useful Units :

F⊥

p=

1 Pa = 1 N/m2

1 atm = 101 325 Pa

A = 760 Torr

=1013 mbar

contact with it.

• Force is perpendicular to the object surface

• Pressure has no preferred direction (scalar)

At equilibrium, the pressure in a fluid of uniform density depends

only on the depth,

depth NOT THE SHAPE, of the container.

p = p0 + ρgh

p = pressure at a some depth h

po = pressure at the surface (or the atmosphere)

ρ = density of the fluid

ρ gh = gauge pressure

• Pressure below > Pressure above

• Pressure is the same at all points at the same depth of the fluid.

● For a homogeneous fluid in an open container, the pressure is

the same at a given depth independent of the container’s shape.

p(y)

only if the densities are different.

Examples:

• Ear-popping

• SCUBA

• Using a sphygmomanometer

• Bath tub vs. Pitcher

Hydrostatic paradox

● For a connected container, the fluid level is the same everywhere

assuming that there are no surface forces (in equilibrium).

Example:

• A U tube contain immiscible liquids of

density ρ 1 and ρ 2. Compare the densities

d

of the liquids. h ρ 2

At the top, both are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. ρ 1

At the interface, both have the same pressure as well.

So from the Pressure-Depth relation:

p = p0 + ρ 2 gh p = p0 + ρ1 g ( h − d )

p0 + ρ 2 gh = p0 + ρ1 g ( h − d ) h−d < h

ρ 2 h = ρ1 ( h − d ) ρ 2 = ρ1

( h−d)

ρ 2 < ρ1

h

Chapter 14 Fluid pressure 11

hpo WHY?

−

gρ o

p = p0 e (i) The gravitational force on air

molecules is greater for those

near the earth’s surface, dragging

them closer together and

increasing the pressure between

them.

Mt. Everest earth have less weight but exert

compressive force on those below

Commercial jet cruising them. In turn, those lower down

altitude have to support more molecules

above them and are further

compressed in the process.

Problem set 11.1:

(a) What water pressure would a diver experience at a depth of 200

m? Express your answer in atmospheres.

this depth, assuming that its horizontal cross-sectional hull area

is 3000 m2.

Pascal’s Principle

“Pressure applied to an

enclosed fluid is transmitted

undiminished to every portion of By adding more weight at

the fluid and to the walls of the the top, the pressure also

increases proportionally

containing vessel.” within the fluid.

Applications:

• Heimlich maneuver

• Squeezing the end of toothpaste tube

• Hydraulic lift

Application: Hydraulic lift

Larger than

Small applied F1

force, F1

A2

F2 = F1

F1 A1

p= A1

A1 p is transmitted F2 F1

through the larger p= =

piston

A2 A1

Example:

200 kg

40 kg

A1 A2 = 20m2

Pressure measurements are always done with respect to the

pressure of the surroundings.

Patm = atmospheric pressure

Pgauge = pressure excess of atmospeheric

Open-tube manometer

• Measures gauge pressure directly

P − Patm = ρg ( y2 − y1 ) = ρgh

Pgauge = ρgh

Example:

A manometer tube is partially filled with mercury. Water is then

poured into the left arm of the tube until the mercury-water

interface is at the midpoint. Both arms of the tube are open to

air. Find the relationship between hH2O and hmercury .

hH2O hmercury

Example:

A barrel contains a 0.120 m-layer of oil floating on water that is

0.250 m-deep. The density of the oil is 600 kg/m3.

interface?

(b)What are the gauge and absolute pressures at the bottom of

the barrel?

Buoyancy

• Apparent weight loss of an object when totally/partially

immersed in a fluid

Lower Pressure

mg FB

Higher Pressure

Archimedes’ Principle

“When a body is fully or partially submerged in a fluid, a

buoyant force from the surrounding fluid acts on the

body.”

magnitude equal to the WEIGHT of the displaced FLUID

by the body.”

fluid, which doesn’t necessarily coincide with the CoG of the

submerged object

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 23

Compare the magnitude of tension on the

Example: string for the three cases.

A B C

m

ρf

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 24

Question:

Based on the summation of forces, therefore, what makes an

object sink, float or hover?

(accelerate downwards)

(accelerate upwards)

(stay at the same level)

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 25

Examples:

• Fishes and their air sacs

• Life vests

• Ice cubes

• Boats/ships

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 26

Example:

What fraction of the iceberg afloat in seawater is visible from

the surface?

Viceberg = total volume of iceberg

= Vsub

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 27

Example:

You have found a treasure chest afloat

at sea! To keep it, though, from other

pirates coming your way, you jumped on

the water and stood on top of the chest.

What should your mass be to be able

to keep the chest totally submerged

in water while keeping you afloat?

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 28

Problem set 11.2:

Three children, each of weight 36 kg, make a log raft by

lashing together logs of diameter 0.3 m and length 1.8 m.

How many logs will be needed to keep them afloat? Consider

the density of wood to be 842 kg/m3.

Minimum requirement is for the logs to be completely submerged, but the children

standing on them are not.

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 29

Fluid dynamics

• We will only consider fluids that are:

• Non-viscous

(no internal friction)

• Incompressible

(constant density)

• Steady/ non-turbulent

(P, V and flow velocity are

constant in time)

What’s in store for us?

Chapter 14

30

Continuity equation

Ideal fluids obey continuity equation.

Conservation of Mass: “What goes in comes out”

Compressible Fluids)

Volume

flow rate ρA1v1 = ρA2 v2 (Incompressible Fluids)

v1 = v2 (area), the faster a fluid flows

A1 through it!

Examples:

• “ Still waters run deep”

• Necking down of water from faucets

• A housing contractor saves some money by reducing the size of a

pipe from 1” diameter to 1/2” diameter at some point in your

house.

Assuming the water moving in the pipe is an ideal fluid (incompressible),

relative to its speed in the 1” diameter pipe, how fast is the water going in

the 1/2” pipe? v1 v1/2

Bernoulli’s equation

An ideal fluid flowing through a pipe may change its motion

depending on the:

(i) cross-section area of the pipe, (ii) elevation of the inlet and outlet, and

(iii) variation in pressure between inlet and outlet

P2, V2

v1 A2

P1, V1

A1

v2 y2

y1

Based on Energy Conservation:

1 2

p + ρv + ρgy = constant

2 (For ideal (incompressible) fluid)

1 1

p1 + ρ1v1 + ρ1 gy1 = p2 + ρ 2 v2 + ρ 2 gy 2

2 2

2 2

Case 1. Static pressure: No flow (but with elevation change)

1 2 1 2

p1 + ρv1 + ρgy1 = p2 + ρv2 + ρgy2

2 2

=0

p2 = p1 − ρg ( y2 − y1 )

Same with what we have derived before for static fluid.

i.e. since the pressure at a higher elevation y2 is less than

at lower depth y1

Case 2. Dynamic pressure: with flow (but no elevation change)

1 2 1 2

p1 + ρv1 + ρgy1 = p2 + ρv2 + ρgy2

2 2

y2 – y1 =0

1 2 1 2

p1 + ρv1 = p2 + ρv2

2 2

must be SMALL!!!

Examples:

• Blowing on top of paper

• Roofs flying off houses during storms

• MRT’s yellow line

• Airplane wings

higher

velocity

lower

pressure

lower

velocity

higher

pressure

Example:

A B C D

Cross-sectional area B< A=C < D

Speed D< A=C < B

Pressure B< A=C < D

Chapter 14 Bernoulli’s equation 38

Example:

A C

B

Speed A< B =C

Elevation B< A=C

Pressure C < A, C < B

Example:

Water circulates throughout a house in a hot-water heating

system. If water is pumped out at a speed of 0.50 m/s

through a 4.0 cm diameter pipe in the basement under a

pressure of 3.0 atm, what will be the flow speed and

pressure in a 2.6 cm diameter pipe on the second floor 5.0

m above assuming that the pipes do not divide into branches.

Problem set 12.1:

A large tank of water has a small hole a distance h below the

water surface. Find the speed of the water as it flows out of

the hole.

Hints:

Cross-sectional area of the flow

tube at A << area at B

A

h

yA B

Velocity at A is negligible

yB

- Sheet 11 Problems Sheet on FluidsUploaded bylozzzzz
- Hydraulics and Fluid MechanicsUploaded bySubbaReddy
- Norriseal Cantilever Level ControllerUploaded byMert
- Archimedes Law Lesson PlanUploaded byKissiMarwanti
- fluid mech_1.70Uploaded byشيماء الهاشمي
- 2134 Lab NishantUploaded byNishant Jalgaonkar
- 250 TOP Fluid MechanicsUploaded bySeedy B Fofana
- 78407099-CHEVRON-Flow-Rates-and-Shock-Pressures-Through-Tube-Ruptures-Heat-Exchanger[1].pdfUploaded byandrewisverige
- VLP OutputUploaded byEfrain Rivas
- Investigatry ProjectUploaded bynaruto_3
- 3.5 ArchimedesUploaded bysheyzulkifli
- Aquatic Physical TherapyUploaded byKwende89
- E6 ArchimedesUploaded byjamesyu
- fluids-dsUploaded byShang Divina Ebrada
- Fluid MechanicsUploaded byEr Suraj Hulke
- VibrationsUploaded bybub12345678
- 10_LectureOutlineUploaded byFahmi Rosdiansyah
- Quick Revision Paper 3 Section b Physics SpmUploaded byTeoh Milay
- fluids manual.docxUploaded byCarelyn Ibarra
- murteza with comments 2Uploaded byapi-272555854
- Fluid Statics 4Uploaded byDungbeetle696969
- EM Seabed Logging on the Troll Field Lowres 000Uploaded byKevin Rengifo Torres
- Fuild Report 3Uploaded bySoonyeowYong
- civilUploaded byapi-236544093
- pressurevsrateofflow-111212032231-phpapp01Uploaded byrammech85
- Ex3.pdfUploaded byAhmedTaha
- spe112923.pdfUploaded byعبدالغفار بيزان
- TmrUploaded byEverRamirez
- 10.TransientUploaded byhiyeon
- Teaching Plan FM 2013-14Uploaded byPushkar Fegade

- Sub Cooling Duration in Space Cryogenic Propellant StorageUploaded byBharathi Raja
- Welty (2) - CopyUploaded byFelipe
- Leakage Classification of Control ValvesUploaded byMichele Bui
- CH6403Uploaded byNikyl
- Thermo Heat EffectsUploaded byafri riandra
- 301.Hydraulic Separator Calculating Its Heating Power (2)Uploaded byamanda
- Fluid Dynamics Student ManualUploaded byJayachandran Sivagurunathan
- Chapter 15 Flow MeaspurementsUploaded byupendra35
- Hybrid Tesla Pelton Wheel TurbineUploaded byFreddy Augusto Vargas
- ADSOSS-N17_5532Uploaded byHamid Rafiee
- ANSI PTC 19.3 TW prefomance test code.pdfUploaded byJairo Wilches
- Matson_Jed MPMS Ch. 14.10 Flare Measurement.pdfUploaded bysurusrikant@yahoo.com
- Datasheet PSV PDPDEUploaded byRicardo Napitupulu
- D040 WTR C USA 11.pdfUploaded byMartin Urbieta
- Body TemperatureUploaded byDevadoss Doss
- Performance Limits of TurbomachinesUploaded byAndrew Whipple
- Thermochemical Exploration of Hydrogen Combustion in Generic Scramjet CombustorUploaded byGunvir Singh
- Experimental Evaluation of Test Section Boundary Interference Effects in Road Vehicle Tests in Wind TunnelsUploaded bySNADA
- HEAT TRANSFER - Unsteady State - HandoutUploaded byTrong Phat Jr.
- A Working Guide to Process EquipmentUploaded byBadar Rasheed
- Combustion in Swirling Flow - A ReviewUploaded byTimothy Edward Dawson
- Call for PapersUploaded byNawaf Saeid
- Data Correlation for Sphere Drag 2016Uploaded byJesús Alexander Sánchez Gonzàlez
- NANO-BW-MAXUploaded byELIEZERMANUEL
- External Aerodynamics Simulations for the MIT D8 “Double-Bubble” Aircraft DesignUploaded byMike Shahrokh
- 01667Uploaded byWoei Tding Chong
- 2011 - Heat Pipe Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) Hybrid System and Its Performance EvaluationUploaded byأمير معروف
- Short Description of a Field-Testing Method With Cone Shaped Sounding ApparatusUploaded byAnonymous GnfGTw
- Rotary Kiln, Technical DataUploaded byAaron Lindemann
- FUNDAMENTALS_OF_Reservoir_Fluids3_-_updated-1.pptUploaded byadewale