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FLUID

MECHANICS

Chapter 14 1st semester, AY 2009-2010


Images from:http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/character.html

• Solids
– tightly packed, usually in a regular pattern
– retains a fixed volume and shape
– not easily compressible
– doesn’t easily flow

 Liquids
 close together with no regular arrangement
 assumes the shape of the part of the container which it
occupies
 not easily compressible, flow easily

 Gas
 well separated with no regular arrangement
 assumes the shape of the part of the container
 easily compressible, flow easily

Chapter 14 Classification of matter 2


Fluid statics
• Density
• Pressure
• Buoyancy

Fluid dynamics
• Continuity equation
• Bernoulli’s equation

Chapter 14 What’s in store for us? 3


Density Material
Air (1 atm, 200 C)
Density, kg/m3
1.21
Water 0.998 x 103

M Ice 0.917 x 103

ρ=
Blood 1.060 x 103
Seawater 1.024 x 103

V Styrofoam
Gold
1 x 102
19.3 x 103
Units :
• Density may vary from point to point
1 kg/m = 10 g/cm
3 -3 3

• Higher ρ sinks under lower ρ


• Solids and liquids: ρ independent of T & P
Gases: strongly dependent on T & P

Chapter 14 Properties of fluids 4


Specific gravity/relative density

ρ material
ρ SG =
ρ water

• Specific gravity is dimensionless.


• ρ > 1 object sinks under water
ρ < 1 object floats over water

Chapter 14 Properties of fluids 5


Pressure
Useful Units :

F⊥
p=
1 Pa = 1 N/m2
1 atm = 101 325 Pa

A = 760 Torr
=1013 mbar

• Fluid exerts a force at each point on the surface of an object in


contact with it.
• Force is perpendicular to the object surface
• Pressure has no preferred direction (scalar)

Chapter 14 Properties of fluids 6


At equilibrium, the pressure in a fluid of uniform density depends
only on the depth,
depth NOT THE SHAPE, of the container.

p = p0 + ρgh
p = pressure at a some depth h
po = pressure at the surface (or the atmosphere)
ρ = density of the fluid
ρ gh = gauge pressure

* With the assumption that g is uniform all throughout the fluid.


• Pressure below > Pressure above
• Pressure is the same at all points at the same depth of the fluid.

Chapter 14 Fluid pressure 7


● For a homogeneous fluid in an open container, the pressure is
the same at a given depth independent of the container’s shape.

p(y)

● Differences in fluid pressure at the same elevation will arise


only if the densities are different.

Chapter 14 Fluid pressure 8


Examples:
• Ear-popping
• SCUBA
• Using a sphygmomanometer
• Bath tub vs. Pitcher

Chapter 14 Fluid pressure 9


Hydrostatic paradox
● For a connected container, the fluid level is the same everywhere
assuming that there are no surface forces (in equilibrium).

Chapter 14 Fluid pressure 10


Example:
• A U tube contain immiscible liquids of
density ρ 1 and ρ 2. Compare the densities
d
of the liquids. h ρ 2

At the bottom, both liquids have the same pressure.


At the top, both are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. ρ 1
At the interface, both have the same pressure as well.
So from the Pressure-Depth relation:

p = p0 + ρ 2 gh p = p0 + ρ1 g ( h − d )
p0 + ρ 2 gh = p0 + ρ1 g ( h − d ) h−d < h
ρ 2 h = ρ1 ( h − d ) ρ 2 = ρ1
( h−d)
ρ 2 < ρ1
h
Chapter 14 Fluid pressure 11
hpo WHY?

gρ o
p = p0 e (i) The gravitational force on air
molecules is greater for those
near the earth’s surface, dragging
them closer together and
increasing the pressure between
them.

(ii) Molecules further away from the


Mt. Everest earth have less weight but exert
compressive force on those below
Commercial jet cruising them. In turn, those lower down
altitude have to support more molecules
above them and are further
compressed in the process.

Chapter 14 Fluid pressure variation w/ altitude 12


Problem set 11.1:
(a) What water pressure would a diver experience at a depth of 200
m? Express your answer in atmospheres.

(b) Find the total weight of water on top of a nuclear submarine at


this depth, assuming that its horizontal cross-sectional hull area
is 3000 m2.

(Assume that the density of sea water is 1.03 g/cm3)

Chapter 14 Fluid pressure 13


Pascal’s Principle

“Pressure applied to an
enclosed fluid is transmitted
undiminished to every portion of By adding more weight at
the fluid and to the walls of the the top, the pressure also
increases proportionally
containing vessel.” within the fluid.

Chapter 14 Pressure applied to fluid 14


Applications:
• Heimlich maneuver
• Squeezing the end of toothpaste tube
• Hydraulic lift

Chapter 14 Pascal’s principle 15


Application: Hydraulic lift
Larger than
Small applied F1
force, F1
A2
F2 = F1
F1 A1
p= A1

A1 p is transmitted F2 F1
through the larger p= =
piston
A2 A1

Chapter 14 Pascal’s principle 16


Example:

200 kg
40 kg

A1 A2 = 20m2

Chapter 14 Pascal’s principle 17


Pressure measurements are always done with respect to the
pressure of the surroundings.

Pgauge = Pabsolute − Patm

Pabsolute = total pressure


Patm = atmospheric pressure
Pgauge = pressure excess of atmospeheric

Chapter 14 Measuring pressure 18


Open-tube manometer
• Measures gauge pressure directly

P + ρgy1 = Patm + ρgy2

P − Patm = ρg ( y2 − y1 ) = ρgh

Pgauge = ρgh

Chapter 14 Measuring pressure 19


Example:
A manometer tube is partially filled with mercury. Water is then
poured into the left arm of the tube until the mercury-water
interface is at the midpoint. Both arms of the tube are open to
air. Find the relationship between hH2O and hmercury .

hH2O hmercury

Chapter 14 Measuring pressure 20


Example:
A barrel contains a 0.120 m-layer of oil floating on water that is
0.250 m-deep. The density of the oil is 600 kg/m3.

(a)What are the gauge and absolute pressures at the oil-water


interface?
(b)What are the gauge and absolute pressures at the bottom of
the barrel?

Chapter 14 Measuring pressure 21


Buoyancy
• Apparent weight loss of an object when totally/partially
immersed in a fluid
Lower Pressure

mg FB
Higher Pressure

Chapter 14 Properties of fluids 22


Archimedes’ Principle
“When a body is fully or partially submerged in a fluid, a
buoyant force from the surrounding fluid acts on the
body.”

“The buoyant force is directed UPWARD and has a


magnitude equal to the WEIGHT of the displaced FLUID
by the body.”

• The line of action of FB passes through the CoG of the displaced


fluid, which doesn’t necessarily coincide with the CoG of the
submerged object

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 23
Compare the magnitude of tension on the
Example: string for the three cases.

A B C
m

ρf
Chapter 14 Buoyancy 24
Question:
Based on the summation of forces, therefore, what makes an
object sink, float or hover?

Sink FB < Wobj ρ f < ρ obj


(accelerate downwards)

Float FB > Wobj ρ f > ρ obj


(accelerate upwards)

Hover FB = Wobj ρ f = ρ obj


(stay at the same level)

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 25
Examples:
• Fishes and their air sacs
• Life vests
• Ice cubes
• Boats/ships

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 26
Example:
What fraction of the iceberg afloat in seawater is visible from
the surface?
Viceberg = total volume of iceberg

Vfluid,disp. = equal to the submerged portion of the iceberg

= Vsub

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 27
Example:
You have found a treasure chest afloat
at sea! To keep it, though, from other
pirates coming your way, you jumped on
the water and stood on top of the chest.
What should your mass be to be able
to keep the chest totally submerged
in water while keeping you afloat?

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 28
Problem set 11.2:
Three children, each of weight 36 kg, make a log raft by
lashing together logs of diameter 0.3 m and length 1.8 m.
How many logs will be needed to keep them afloat? Consider
the density of wood to be 842 kg/m3.

Density of water = 1 x 103 kg/m3

Minimum requirement is for the logs to be completely submerged, but the children
standing on them are not.

Chapter 14 Buoyancy 29
Fluid dynamics
• We will only consider fluids that are:

• Non-viscous
(no internal friction)
• Incompressible
(constant density)
• Steady/ non-turbulent
(P, V and flow velocity are
constant in time)
What’s in store for us?
Chapter 14
30
Continuity equation
Ideal fluids obey continuity equation.
Conservation of Mass: “What goes in comes out”

ρ1 A1v1 = ρ 2 A2 v2 (Mass Flux of


Compressible Fluids)

Volume
flow rate ρA1v1 = ρA2 v2 (Incompressible Fluids)

A2 The narrower the constriction


v1 = v2 (area), the faster a fluid flows
A1 through it!

Chapter 14 Fluid dynamics 31


Examples:
• “ Still waters run deep”
• Necking down of water from faucets
• A housing contractor saves some money by reducing the size of a
pipe from 1” diameter to 1/2” diameter at some point in your
house.
Assuming the water moving in the pipe is an ideal fluid (incompressible),
relative to its speed in the 1” diameter pipe, how fast is the water going in
the 1/2” pipe? v1 v1/2

Chapter 14 Continuity equation 32


Bernoulli’s equation
An ideal fluid flowing through a pipe may change its motion
depending on the:
(i) cross-section area of the pipe, (ii) elevation of the inlet and outlet, and
(iii) variation in pressure between inlet and outlet

P2, V2

v1 A2
P1, V1

A1
v2 y2
y1

Chapter 14 Fluid dynamics 33


Based on Energy Conservation:

1 2
p + ρv + ρgy = constant
2 (For ideal (incompressible) fluid)

1 1
p1 + ρ1v1 + ρ1 gy1 = p2 + ρ 2 v2 + ρ 2 gy 2
2 2

2 2

Chapter 14 Bernoulli’s equation 34


Case 1. Static pressure: No flow (but with elevation change)

1 2 1 2
p1 + ρv1 + ρgy1 = p2 + ρv2 + ρgy2
2 2
=0

p2 = p1 − ρg ( y2 − y1 )
Same with what we have derived before for static fluid.
i.e. since the pressure at a higher elevation y2 is less than
at lower depth y1

Chapter 14 Bernoulli’s equation 35


Case 2. Dynamic pressure: with flow (but no elevation change)

1 2 1 2
p1 + ρv1 + ρgy1 = p2 + ρv2 + ρgy2
2 2
y2 – y1 =0

1 2 1 2
p1 + ρv1 = p2 + ρv2
2 2

Implication: Where the SPEED is LARGE, the PRESSURE


must be SMALL!!!

Chapter 14 Bernoulli’s equation 36


Examples:
• Blowing on top of paper
• Roofs flying off houses during storms
• MRT’s yellow line
• Airplane wings

higher
velocity
lower
pressure

lower
velocity
higher
pressure

Chapter 14 Bernoulli’s equation 37


Example:
A B C D

Vol flow rate, y, ρ, g A= B=C = D


Cross-sectional area B< A=C < D
Speed D< A=C < B
Pressure B< A=C < D
Chapter 14 Bernoulli’s equation 38
Example:
A C

Area B=C < A


B
Speed A< B =C
Elevation B< A=C
Pressure C < A, C < B

Chapter 14 Bernoulli’s equation 39


Example:
Water circulates throughout a house in a hot-water heating
system. If water is pumped out at a speed of 0.50 m/s
through a 4.0 cm diameter pipe in the basement under a
pressure of 3.0 atm, what will be the flow speed and
pressure in a 2.6 cm diameter pipe on the second floor 5.0
m above assuming that the pipes do not divide into branches.

Chapter 14 Bernoulli’s equation 40


Problem set 12.1:
A large tank of water has a small hole a distance h below the
water surface. Find the speed of the water as it flows out of
the hole.
Hints:
Cross-sectional area of the flow
tube at A << area at B
A
h
yA B
Velocity at A is negligible
yB

Chapter 14 Bernoulli’s equation 41