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Danger Sign of Pregnancy

Swelling of face, finger and foot Hypertension of

pregnancy Headache; continuous and severe Hypertension of pregnancy Abdominal, chest and back pain Ectopic pregnancy, Uterine rupture Vaginal bleeding Placental problems (previa, abruption) Vomiting, persistent Infection Visual changes Hypertension of pregnancy Escape of vaginal fluids Premature rupture of membrane

Definition of Terms
Abortion is a fetus that is aborted before it is 500 grams

in weight. Blighted ovum a small macerated sometimes there is no fetus surrounded by a fluid inside an open sac. Carneous mole a zygote that is surrounded by clotted blood. Maceration a dead fetus under going nechrosis. Lithopedion - a calcifite embryo, the product of conception becomes becomes a hard as stone. Early abortion the termination of pregnancy before 16 weeks.

Late abortion abortion that occurs between 16 to 20

weeks. Immature infant an infant having a birth weight between a 500 to 1000 grams. Full term an infant born between 28-42 weeks. Occult pregnancy refers to those zygote the where aborted before pregnancy is diagnose or recognize.

Termination of pregnancy before the age of viability

usually before 20 24 weeks. It is the most common bleeding disorder of early pregnancy. TYPES OF ABORTION SPONTANEOUS without medical or mechanical intervention. INDUCED with medical or mechanical intervention.

THERAPEUTIC ABORTION the termination agent

because a continuation of pregnancy would be hazardous to the mother. CRIMINAL ABORTION/ELECTURE/VOLUNTARY done without medical justification, maybe performed with little or no medical training.

Types : Threatened Abortion possible loss of product of conception. Inevitable Abortion the loss of the product of conception cannot be prevented. Complete Abortion spontaneous expulsion of product of conception after the fetus has died in utero. Incomplete Abortion explusion of some part and retension og other part after the death of fetus in uterus. Missed Abortion The woman usually is not aware of the loss, specifically when there is no vaginal bleeding or abdominal pain.

Habitual Abortion Abortion occurring in 3 or more

successive pregnancies. Septic Abortion Abortion complicated by infection.

Types of abortion


Abdominal cramps
May or may not present

Cervical dilation
Closed cervix

Tissue passage

Manageme nt
Bed rest, save all pads, no coitus up to 2 weeks after bleeding stop. Hospitalizati on, D and C, sympathetic understandi ng and emotional support.

Threatened Slight







Small to negative


Closed or partially open

Complete placenta with fetus

Sympathetic understanding and emotional support.

D and C, oxytocin after DandC, sympqthetic understanding and support emotional.




Open with Fetal or tissue in cervix incomplete placental tissue


None to severe




Regarding to the age of conception has to be removed from the uterus.


mild to severe


Closed or open with or without tissue

possibly, Treat foul abortion, discharge antibiotics. s


May present signs of any of the above; usually detected in the threatened phase; cervical closure(Mcdonald surgery and Shirodkar barter surgery) may be employed. *McDonald Surgery temporary closure of the cervix. *Shirodkar Barter Surgery permanent suturing of the cervix.

Sign of abortion
Vaginal bleeding or spotting, mild to severe

Uterine/abdominal cramps
Passage of tissue or product of conception Sign related to blood/shock: pallor, tachycardia,

tachypnea, cold clammy skin, restlessness, oliguria, air hunger, and hypotension.

Causes of Abortion
FETAL CAUSE the most common causes of early

spontaneous abortion is abnormal development of zygote, embryo or fetus. MATERNAL CAUSE there are congenital or acquired condition of mother and factors that had adversely affected pregnancy outcome and had to aborting. MATERNAL FACTORS Viral infection Malnutrition Trauma (physical and mental) Congenital defects of the reproductive tract Incompetent cervix

Increased temperature as in febrile conditions Systemic disease in the mother Environmental hazards Rh incompatibility

Surgery : dilatation and curettage

Blood, plasma, fluid replacement Habitual abortion: Mcdonald surgery and Shirodkar-barter

surgery Blood test