Rests between Russia and the rest of Europe • They have varied history, usually under harsh leadership

Eastern Europe is much less urban than the rest of Europe Behind rest of Europe because of all years spent under Communism. Second World Countries

CONFLICT: Ethnic/religious rivalry is a major problem Jews have also faced antiSemitism The Romany people (Gypsies) are scattered across Europe and are looked down upon because they call no place “home”

End of Communism: • The Soviet Union controlled Eastern Europe for 4 decades • Late 1980’s, Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev instituted new reforms for economic hardships and gave Eastern Europe greater freedom. • Demanded an end to Communism and held free elections. • Problems followed- people were not used to freedom and ethnic loyalties created chaos Yugoslavia, there were 6 republics and 4 agreed to separate, led to civil war. Czechoslovakia peacefully – split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia

covered by Northern European Plain Resources: coal, sulfur, copper 95% Catholic, Pole ethnic group Holocaust, Jews sealed in

Poland: strong cultural identity
A Polish Nation: 95% Roman Catholic The Holocaust •Jewish population down from 3 million to 9,000 •sealed into ghettos by Nazis •concentration camps (6 million Polish dead)

Catholic Church keeps Poles united Solidarity: independent labor union •Led by Lech Walensa Troubled economy •end of Communism did not bring instant prosperity

Czech and Slovak Republics & Hungary
Czech Republic -Industrial Former Czechoslovakia • Controlled by Communists from • Velvet revolution: without bloodshed; became a free society and free market economy • Velvet revolution led to a “velvet divorce”

Czech and Slovak Republics & Hungary
Two regions Bohemia: western half •mines and industries Moravia: eastern half •air, water pollution •inefficient industries

Czech and Slovak Republics & Hungary
Slovakia: agricultural region •collective farms (government owned; workers paid by the government)

Czech and Slovak Republics & Hungary
Hungary: one ethnic group, Magyars •Danube River •“Breadbasket of Europe” (fertile soil)

The Balkan Peninsula
Balkanize: break into small, mutually hostile political units Romania Ceausescu
Eastern Orthodox, ethnic Romanian economy in chaos

The Balkan Peninsula
Bulgaria: “Garden of Eastern Europe” Slavic people Rose industry

The Balkan Peninsula
Albania: “Europe’s Hermit” small nation, distinctive culture isolation left country poor

The Balkan Peninsula Yugoslavia Six separate republics – violent break-up •Macedonia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro

Conflicts Bosnia-Herzegovina: fighting between Muslims, Croats, Serbians Ethnic cleansing: Serbs drive out ethnic groups, captured, murdered them

“Ethnic Cleansing” of Bosnian Muslims

WAR IN BOSNIA: • In March 1992, Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence • Bosnia’s Muslims and Croats supported the move, Serbian population didn’t and started a war using violence and mass murder to rid the region of Croats and Muslims. • Over 200,000 people died, 2 million fled their homes to refugee camps • In 1995, the US/UN sponsored a peace treaty to end the fighting

President Clinton

Dayton (OH) Peace Accords

The Balkan Peninsula
Serbia and Montenegro kept the name of Yugoslavia after the other republics broke away industries poorly developed economic disaster from break-up and war improved in 1990s

WAR IN KOSOVO: • Serbs angry at Muslim Albanians living in Kosovo • Serbia, under Milošević, tried to take control and wipe out the Albanian population. • The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) formed and began attacking Serbian officials • The Serbian government bombed villages and began a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Albanians • March 1999, NATO started bombing Serbia to end the violence In June, Milošević withdrew his forces from Kosovo • After the withdrawal, the world learned of the atrocities committed

The Balkan Peninsula
Croatia descended from same Slavic people as Serbs language same, alphabet and religion different fighting and conflict between Serbs and Croats Serbs still living in Croatia economy in decline

The Balkan Peninsula
good industry; expected to recover rather quickly from war

ethnic complex: Serbs, Croats, Muslims civil war has made the poor, poorer foreign aid from United Nations and NATO

remained relatively quiet poorest of old republics

CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION: • Mines and factories discharge chemicals into rivers and streams • Bury solid waste which seep into ground water. • Burn coal and other fuels which cause acid rain which fall into water sources

Tisza River

CAUSES OF WATER POLLUTION Sewage: Some countries have no water treatment plants Chemical Fertilizers: Rain washed fertilizers from fields into bodies of water causing algae and plants to grow faster than they can be eaten by fish. Oil Spills: In December 1999, a tanker spilled 10,000 tons of oil off the coast of France, spreading 250 miles along its coastline. It killed thousands of

The EU has set up the European Environmental Agency which keeps it informed about environmental issues •E.E countries may be admitted to EU when pollution controls are in place.

Logo of the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine

CAUSES OF AIR POLLUTION: Air pollution is made up of harmful gasses and particulates (very small liquid or solid particles) which are expelled into the atmosphere: • Using Fossil Fuels: Burning petroleum, gas, or coals causes air pollution and creates smog (brown haze that occurs when the gases released by burning fossil fuels react with sunlight to create hundreds of harmful chemicals. One chemical is “ozone” which plays a part in the removal of hydrocarbons from the air, but is also the first step in the creation of components of smog which can be a powerful eye irritant. • Fires: Forest fires and garbage burning releases smoke and particulates into the atmosphere. • Chemical use: Dry cleaning, refrigeration, air conditioning, and spraying pesticides are a few human activities that release harmful chemicals into the air. • Industry: Factories discharge chemicals such as sulfur … this was a big problem in former Communist countries.

RESULTING PROBLEMS: • Breathing problems can result from air pollution such as asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and possibly even lung cancer • It harms livestock and plants growth • It causes acid rain which kills forests and damages buildings (such as the Parthenon) CLEANING UP THE AIR: • Individual nations are passing laws to make air safer • France requires improve thermal insulation of new buildings reducing the need for fossil fuel use for heating • Other European nations have followed suit • In 1998, members of the European Union agreed that in 2000, they would all implement laws reducing car and van emissions.