EE 42: Introduction to Digital Electronics, Berkeley, Fall 2004. Lecture 2.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

5 views

EE 42: Introduction to Digital Electronics, Berkeley, Fall 2004. Lecture 2.

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Cheat Sheet
- electrical_interaction_i
- B 20090222 Single-Stage ICs
- An a 24
- Electrical Engineering Dictionary
- OP77
- Fundamental Loop Graph Theory 400188
- sg6841t
- Alexander Ch 01 Final r 1
- 28V relay
- Aes Test Trb Chapter 5
- 0625_w14_qp_62
- A1
- english exercises
- 4 - 5 - Ideal and Real Current Sources (7_43)
- Polarisation Index
- miniunit day1
- Ch18 Giancoli7e Manual
- An Investigation Of Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers
- 2012 Physics 5058 O-level Answers

You are on page 1of 22

Currents

and Voltages

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

Cast of Characters

Fundamental quantities

Current-Voltage Relationship

Fundamental concern

Fundamental elements

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

Charge

You are already familiar with the idea of charge from chemistry or physics. We say a proton has a positive charge, and an electron has a negative charge. Charge is measured in units called Coulombs, abbreviated C. 1 proton = 1.6 x 10-19 C 1 electron = -1.6 x 10-19 C 1 C is a whole lot of protons! 6.25 x 1018 protons in 1 C.

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

Electric Field

We know that opposite charges attract each other, and like charges repel. The presence of a charged particle creates an electric field. Other phenomena also create an electric field. The electric field is a lot like gravity. It can point in different directions and have different strength depending on location. Vector fields are like wind maps from your weather forecast.

+ Earth

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

Voltage

It takes energy to move a proton against the direction of an electric field (just like it takes energy to lift an object off the ground, against gravity). Suppose it takes (positive) energy to move a proton from point a to point b. Then we say point b is at a higher electric potential than point a. The difference in electric potential between two points is called voltage. Voltage, measured in Volts (V) indicates how much energy it takes to move a charge from point to point.

+

a

09/01/04

b

EE 42 Lecture 2

Voltage Conventions

Voltage is always measured between two points (just like distance). We need to specify the start and finish. We could write + saying that b is 5 V higher than a. b a Or, we could write 5V + saying that a is -5 V + -5V higher than b. When we put down a + and a to specify a voltage, it is simply a reference frame. We are not making a statement about which point actually has the higher potential, since the voltage in between can be negative!

EE 42 Lecture 2

09/01/04

We can use subscript convention to define a voltage between two labeled points:

b Remember, this is not saying that the potential at a is higher than the potential at b. The difference could be negative. We can make up voltages with any names we wish, as long as we provide a reference frame (+ and -). Here, VRoss is the potential rise from left to right (or, the potential drop from right to left, or the right potential minus the left).

09/01/04

Vab means the potential at a minus the potential at b (that is, the potential drop from a to b).

VRoss

EE 42 Lecture 2

Examples

A

The flat end of the battery is at lower potential than the bump end.

C 1.5V 9V D

B 1.5V

What is VAD ?

-1.5 V + -1.5 V + 9 V = 6 V

A 1.5V

B

1.5V

C 9V

V1 = 1.5 V VX = -6 V

V1

+ VX +

EE 42 Lecture 2

09/01/04

Many times, a common point will be used as the starting (-) point for several voltage measurements. This common point is called common or ground. We may define a voltage at point a with respect to ground. This refers to the voltage with + reference at a and reference at ground. Voltages with respect to ground a z + are often denoted using a Va single subscript: Notice the symbol for ground. Also seen is

EE 42 Lecture 2

09/01/04

An electric field (or applied energy) can cause charge to move. The amount of charge per time unit moving past a point is called current. Current is measured in Coulombs per second, which are called Amperes (abbreviated A and called Amps for short). Mathematically speaking, where i is current in A, q is dq i charge in C, and t is time in s

dt

Even though it is usually electrons that do the moving, current is defined as the flow of positive charge.

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

This says the current moving through the device from left to right is 5 A. We could also say, the current moving through the device from right to left is -5 A. Drawing an arrow does not make a statement about the direction the current is actually going. It is just a reference frame. You can draw arrows however you want when you need to solve for currents.

EE 42 Lecture 2

09/01/04

Resistance

Current is due the ability of electrons to break away from atoms and move around. In some materials, like metals, where there are few valence electrons, little energy is needed to break bonds and move an electron. In other materials, a strong electric field (voltage) must be applied to break the bonds. These materials are said to have a higher resistance. Resistance, measured in Ohms (), indicates how much voltage is necessary to create a certain amount of current.

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

Power

Power is the amount of energy absorbed or generated per unit time. It is the time derivative of energy, and it is measured in Watts (W). The power absorbed (or generated) by a device is equal to the product of the current through the device and the voltage over the device: p = v i where p is power in W, v is voltage in V and i is current in A. Sometimes this equation gives you the power absorbed by the device, and sometimes it provides the power generated by the device.

EE 42 Lecture 2

09/01/04

Whether p = v i provides absorbed power or generated power depends on the relationship between the current and voltage directions. If the current i is referenced to flow from the + terminal of v to the - terminal of v, then p = v i provides the power absorbed. When the opposite is true, p = v i provides the power generated. Power absorbed by i1 i2 device = (Vdevice) (i1) + Vdevice

EE 42 Lecture 2

09/01/04

Power Calculations

Find the power absorbed by each element.

+ 2V

+

3V -

3 mA 0.5 mA

+

1V 2.5 mA

+

1V -

Element :

(3 V)(-3 mA) = -9 mW

Element : Element :

Element :

09/01/04

(2 V)(3 mA) = 6 mW

(1 V)(0.5 mA) = 0.5 mW (1 V)(2.5 mA) = 2.5 mW

EE 42 Lecture 2

Current-Voltage Relationship

In this course, we deal with circuits that perform computations, where the numbers are voltages. Voltages appear at the input, and create current in the devices, which in turn changes the output voltageand computation has taken place. The relationship between current and voltage in a device is fundamental. Circuit elements are characterized by their current-voltage relationships. It is these relationships that allow us to design and analyze circuits. We will now present current-voltage relationships (called i-v relationships for short) for basic circuit elements.

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

Voltage

is proportional to voltage (linear) is a given quantity, current is unknown

Resistor

Current

Voltage

Current

is zero, voltage is unknown

EE 42 Lecture 2

Current

09/01/04

Wire

Wire has a very small resistance. For simplicity, we will idealize wire in the following way: the potential at all points on a piece of wire is the same, regardless of the current going through it.

Wire

This idealization (and others) can lead to contradictions on paperand smoke in lab.

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

Resistor

The resistor has a currentvoltage relationship called Ohms law: v=iR where R is the resistance in , i is the current in A, and v is the voltage in V, with reference directions as pictured.

v -

If R is given, once you know i, it is easy to find v and vice-versa. Since R is never negative, a resistor always absorbs power

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

The ideal voltage source explicitly defines + Vs the voltage between its terminals. Constant (DC) voltage source: Vs = 5 V Time-Varying voltage source: Vs = 10 sin(t) V Examples: batteries, wall outlet, function generator, The ideal voltage source does not provide any information about the current flowing through it. The current through the voltage source is defined by the rest of the circuit to which the source is attached. Current cannot be determined by the value of the voltage. Do not assume that the current is zero!

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

The ideal current source sets the Is value of the current running through it. Constant (DC) current source: Is = 2 A Time-Varying current source: Is = -3 sin(t) A Examples: few in real life! The ideal current source has known current, but unknown voltage. The voltage across the voltage source is defined by the rest of the circuit to which the source is attached. Voltage cannot be determined by the value of the current. Do not assume that the voltage is zero!

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

Air

Many of us at one time, after walking on a carpet in winter, have touched a piece of metal and seen a blue arc of light. That arc is current going through the air. So is a bolt of lightning during a thunderstorm. However, these events are unusual. Air is usually a good insulator and does not allow current to flow. For simplicity, we will idealize air in the following way: current never flows through air (or a hole in a circuit), regardless of the potential difference (voltage) present. Air is a 0 A current source Air is a very very big (infinite) resistor There can be nonzero voltage over air or a hole in a circuit!

09/01/04

EE 42 Lecture 2

- Cheat SheetUploaded bykeng3915
- electrical_interaction_iUploaded byapi-19505025
- B 20090222 Single-Stage ICsUploaded byKashif Chishti
- An a 24Uploaded byDoriz Jan Olano
- Electrical Engineering DictionaryUploaded byMuhammadHaris
- OP77Uploaded byMac Alcudia
- Fundamental Loop Graph Theory 400188Uploaded byShufan Chan
- sg6841tUploaded byBayron Salazar Saborio
- Alexander Ch 01 Final r 1Uploaded byIrfan Ahmed
- 28V relayUploaded byMonirul Islam
- Aes Test Trb Chapter 5Uploaded bydilipeline
- 0625_w14_qp_62Uploaded byHaider Ali
- A1Uploaded byCarlos Abraham Soriano Rangel
- english exercisesUploaded byMargarida Paz
- 4 - 5 - Ideal and Real Current Sources (7_43)Uploaded byEdyar Rafael
- Polarisation IndexUploaded byriddler_007
- miniunit day1Uploaded byapi-295647854
- Ch18 Giancoli7e ManualUploaded byRM
- An Investigation Of Injection-Locked Frequency DividersUploaded byDavid O'Neill
- 2012 Physics 5058 O-level AnswersUploaded byheyitsvan
- The electric current and the Voltages.docxUploaded byالغزيزال الحسن EL GHZIZAL Hassane
- 07862276.pdfUploaded byRahul Shandilya
- Alpha HB (BH12) - Manuel d'Installation -GB- Du 10 05 01 (7657)Uploaded byhiero
- lec11Uploaded byPri
- Unit 1 - Electrical Theory and CircuitsUploaded byBinodSah
- ECE3110 HW 3Uploaded byApricot Blueberry
- EirUploaded byAli Raza
- ElectricityUploaded byChar Char Pongasi
- p1014ap06Uploaded byDvid007 FR
- mc34166tUploaded byAbraham Rodriguez

- 132kV BBP Final Setting TestUploaded byGanesan Selvam
- 1 ( 17 ) .pdfUploaded byHansika Rajapaksha
- AMORC The New Ontology Lesson 7 (September, 1908) by Royle ThurstonUploaded bysauron385
- Vibrasyon Electrical ProblemsUploaded bybbulutmm
- Glean AirUploaded byMan Cangkul
- IEEE C37 04 Norma InterrruptoresUploaded byJose Fernandez Allel
- Catalogo_ProgrammaUploaded bykammun007
- Lift Brochure 8 06-2Uploaded byOrlando Melipillan
- Work Contract Solar PV BOQUploaded byNicholas Smith
- Res Thermo PlatinumUploaded bygopir28
- Ieocr Mme en 1007Uploaded bySaptCahbaguz
- Electronic Instrument AtUploaded bykushalchandel
- Design Project ReportUploaded byPrincess Belle David
- UT Dallas Syllabus for ce3311.5u1.10u taught by Arash Loloee (axl018200)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- TR3124 Uninterruptible Power SupplyUploaded byCandice Williams
- Detailed Schedule for GATE EC 2019 Champion Study PlanUploaded bysaran52_ece
- %2Ffileshare%2Ffilarkivroot%2Fprodukt%2Fpdf%2Fdokumentasjon%2Faps7778 CeUploaded byAnonymous PHcXbF
- Electronic Circuits, Transformerless Power Supply, LED Drivers, Battery chargers, Solar Circuits_ Automatic simple 12V 100mA NiCd Battery Charger circuit.pdfUploaded bydewasuryanto
- Power of the Vortex, by Bryan GraczykUploaded byBryan Graczyk
- 2015 New Uno Ultimate Starter Kit R套件Uploaded bybluesbanky
- CoroCAM4+ManualUploaded byThangco Hut
- Cable Cvtc General CableUploaded bymgutierrez4093
- a_series_single_04E.pdfUploaded byRobert Collins
- ASNPL-24090-B04-ULUploaded byCésar Augusto
- Ac to Dc Converter Project ReportUploaded byPranav Tripathi
- 03. Manual HDCam6E130 2017-10-09Uploaded bySerbanescu Andrei
- SSC Question Paper Set English MediumUploaded byAvinash Verma
- d sibe mccbUploaded bydevadas1976
- Kidde ARIES NETLink - Miami-2012-Handouts.pdfUploaded byAndresGalvisSarmiento
- E10 User Manual V1.15Uploaded byRoger Farje

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.