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JSM 6053: Monitoring Using Earth Observation (Eo) and GIS Introduction to GIS

Sr Jong Tien Kiong RISM

Sr Jong T. K
Education Background
Master of Science, UTM B. Surveying (Land) (Hons), UTM Diploma in Land Surveying, PUO

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia , Johor, Malaysia


Contact: H/P: 013-802906 Email:


Introduction to Geographic Information Systems

Introduction Overview
History of GIS What is GIS? Why use a GIS? What can a GIS do? GIS definitions Why Need GIS?

The History
First developed in North America, particularly the U.S. and Canada in the mid-1960s Previously been used in natural resources and environmental research

History of GIS
1960s to 2000: Starting of the GIS projects & ESRI founded 1970 ERDAS founded 1980s GPS become operational
GIS text books Mapinfo founded

1990s ESRI produce ArcView and ArcGIS

Billion ringgit business in GIS

2000s current:-Internet become pupular

Billion of users

History of GIS: Malaysia

1986 : Starting of the GIS projects
JUPEM, Ministry land Development (NALIS) DOA, Forestry, Local Council and other Government Departments.

Internet GIS: Lot of applications Current: Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Every disciplines use GIS Sarawak: ICT Unit, CMD

Opening Definitions
Geographic Information (map, digital form) Sea surface temperature, Data numbers, text, symbols
soil type, population density

Information differentiated from data

implying some degree of selection, organization, and preparation for particular purpose, or data given some degree of interpretation

Information about places on Earths surface Geographic versus spatial Geographic refers to Earths surface and near surface Spatial refers to any space (more general) Knowledge about where something is Knowledge about what is at a given location Can be very detailed or very course Can be relatively static or change rapidly 8 Can be very sparse or voluminous

GIS definitions
A working GIS integrates five key components:
hardware, software, data, people, and


GIS definitions
"A system of hardware, software, and procedures designed to support the
capture, management, manipulation, analysis, modeling and display of

spatially-referenced data for solving complex planning and management problems."



GIS may include manual systems, however, it usually refers to a computerised database system for capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data (Huxhold, 1991). GIS is capable of assisting the storage, retrieval and manipulation of spatially referenced data such as street address or a census tract (Nedovic-Budic, 1999). GIS is most useful when used to perform data analysis (Lee and Wong, 2001, viii)


application acts as a problem solving solution example: water pollution, traffic, land management toolbox emphasize on the generic aspect of GIS in its definition always used by vendors to maximize their market share



What Is GIS - a Brief Introduction

a system of hardware, software, data, people, organizations and institutional arrangements for collecting, storing, analyzing, and disseminating information about areas of the earth (Dueker and Kjerne, 1989)
Use of geography to integrate information from different sources

Different mapping systems:

Electronic atlases Thematic mapping systems Street-based mapping systems GIS: all these things + much more analysis, import/export, combination of different data, dynamic map update, etc

What does a GIS look like?

Two distinct meanings of the question Is this a GIS? 1. GIS is a real application including hardware, data, software and people needed to solve a problem (a GIS application) 2. GIS is a type of software sold by a software developer GIS hardware like any other computer with perhaps some extra components. Like? What is important is the kind of information thats stored. In addition, a GIS includes tools to do things with this information. Special functions that work on geographic 14 information

Why use a GIS?

It lets us do a range of tasks a lot better and quicker than we could do manually. It allows a range of tasks that could not be achieved manually We can repeat tasks and update information rapidly and inexpensively


Why use a GIS?

An extension of the paper map, but much more than a map, as you will see GIS uses the analytical power of the computer to complete complex tasks Computer's storage power to manage large data sets. Integration of many different types of data from many different sources GIS maps a variety of different data to the same coordinate space (allows for combination of data) 16

Why use a GIS?

a. Automated mapping
b. Simple query c. Spatial analysis

d. Spatial modelling

Why use a GIS?

a. Automated Mapping
Using digitally stored information to create thematic or topographic maps quickly, relatively simply, and flexibly

b. Simple Query
Drawing out information in a spatial database. e.g. How much of a particular vegetation type is found in the study area, and where is it?


Why use a GIS?

c. Spatial Analysis
Quantitative analysis of one or more geographic themes e.g. the calculation of a range of spatial variables in a fragmented landscape.

d. Spatial Modelling
More complex examination of processes which allow predictions based on quantitative analysis. e.g. examining what environmental variables determine rainforest types in the Wet Tropics, and using these models to extrapolate over unsampled areas.

Wide range of uses

Ecology: e.g. species-habitat modelling Forestry: Management planning e.g. harvesting, roads, inventory Land resource assessment / soil survey / geological survey Engineering; eg landslide protection, most direct route for roads

Pollution evaluation and monitoring; often in conjunction with remote sensing

Emergency services, e.g. how to best get to a fire etc. Socioeconomic analyses: analyses of demograpic movements and developments. This type of analyses is performed for the Australian electoral commission. Market analysis Real estate, land valuation Epidemiology: spread of a disease through a community

What can a GIS do?


Find features with known properties but unknown location (Where is a particular feature on the landscape?) (Where are features with specific properties?)
Identify properties of features with known location (What type of features are at a specific location?) Analyze the relationship between/among features and location (Is there a reason these features are found at this location?)

What can a GIS do?

Specifically Delineate watershed boundaries for estimates of sedimentation effects on fish-bearing streams Predict vegetation types based on elevation, slope, and aspect Predict landslide hazard for forest harvest units Calculate the correlation between demographics and HIV infection rates Locate natural areas that need protection Make communicative, colorful, and interesting maps 22

Examples of what a GIS can do

Example 1: Where is a given feature or set of features? Where are forest stands greater than 100 years of age?

query criteria are defined

location is shown


Examples of what a GIS can do

Example 2: What features are at a given location? What is the age of the forest near the 1050 Road?
1st step: select road


Examples of what a GIS can do

Example 2: What features are at a given location? What is the age of the forest near the 1050 Road?

2nd step: select adjacent stands

3rd step: examine records of adjacent stands


Examples of GIS generated maps

detailed topographic maps


Examples of GIS maps

surface drapes & 3-D modeling


Examples of GIS maps

classified (thematic) maps

good for understanding data with many unique values



Traditional GIS







the real world has a lot of spatial data

manipulation, analysis and modeling can be effective and efficiently carried out with a GIS
the neighborhood of the intended purchase of house the route for fire-fighting vehicles to the fire area location of historical sites to visit the earth surface for purposes of army

the earth surface is a limited resource

rational decisions on space utilization fast and quality information in decision making



complexity of management due to the need to combine and process many sets of data, in addition to judge as many as possible, situation that might happen. intense competition the need to use technology in making decisions and strategy in the world of intense competition.

GIS in Malaysia
Adoption of GIS technology is growing very fast in Malaysia
MyGIS: Conference on GIS for Developing Countries: UIA Conference on Spatial Planning and Decision Support Systems UTM International Symposium on Geoinformation Malaysian Center for Geospatial Data Infrastructure Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia GIS:

Local Use:


GIS & RS Application

Basin, Catchment & Reservoir Management

Bakun Dam Catchment

Bakun Reservoir Mid-Rejang IADP

Rajang River Basin

Road Alignment Planning & Optimisation

3D Presentation fo Alternative Routes
3D Presentation of Alternative Routes GIS Layout

GIS Layers

High Voltage Power Transmission Management

Power Line Maintenance 3D

Transmission Line Map

Wireless Telecommunication System

Geospatial Solutions for Rural System Design Line of Sight Tools used in Urban Built-up environment

River System Management

Water & Waste Water Management

Quantitative Measurement of Water Quality

Blue-Green Algae & Turbidity

Land Information Management

Forest Management
Diversity Mapping

Raster layers

Tree Crown Delineation

Dominant Canopy Species Bruguera Gymnorrhiza

Rhizophora Sp. Camptostemon Schultzii Unclassified

Species Identification

Integration of remote sensing and GIS is useful for timely decision making in forest resources inventory, monitoring and management

National Wetlands Inventory

Diversity Mapping Species Identification

Raw Airborne Data Strips Delineated Tree Crowns Field Verification

Advanced Processing

Mangroves of the Daintree River

Final Layout

Precision Agriculture

Oil Palm Mapping

Crown Counting & GIS Integration

Relative Vegetation Vigour

Hyperspectral Mapping - Minerals delineated

Deformation Mapping in the Belridge Oil Fields

Landslide Hazard Zonation Mapping

Destroyed a longhouse & killed 16

Killed 2

The Proposed Bakun Hydro Electric Project, Sarawak

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