Part 2

 Atoms
 Living

and Molecules

Things and Water  Molecules and Their Functions  Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Atoms to Molecules
An ELEMENT is a substances that cannot be broken down into smaller matter by chemical means. There are 92 naturally occurring elements which have been assigned an atomic symbol in the periodic table of elements. Elements which have similar chemical reactions are arranged into the same columns.

Detailed picture of Periodic Table of Elements

Picture from http://www.corrosionsourc e.com/handbook/periodic/

An ATOM is the smallest part of an element which keeps chemical/physical characteristics of that element. An atom contains smaller SUBATOMIC units called PROTONS, NEUTRONS and ELECTRONS.
PROTONS and NEUTRONS • Located in nucleus • Has weight of approx. one AMU

Picture of Atom

• A PROTON has a positive + ELECTRONS charge • Orbits around the nucleus • Has no atomic mass • Has a negative - charge The ATOMIC NUMBER tells you how many how many protons there are. From that information, you can determine how many electrons an atom has when it is neutral. The atoms MASS represents the total of protons and neutrons.

Picture from http://www.eskom.co.z a/nuclear_energy/fuel/ atom.jpg

EXAMPLE: CARBON has an atomic number of 6 and an atomic mass of 12. Therefore, it has 6 electrons when it is neutral.

ELECTRONS

Each atom has a different number of electrons in its shells; however the first shell always has a max of 2 electrons, with a max of 8 electrons in each continuing shell.

Atomic Model: shows different # of protons, neutrons, and electrons per
Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 20

When an atom with the same atomic number has a different atomic mass, it is known as an ISOTOPE. As an atom with more neutrons decays, it emits radiation in the form of particles or energy. This is known as a RADIOISOTOPE. RADIOISOTOPES are important because they can be injected into a persons system through a substance typically used by Picture of the body such as glucose, brain PET which allows researchers to scan It is trace it. a TRACER because it can known as then be viewed on computers through scans. Also, RADIOISOTOPES can be used to sterilize products and can be used to kill cancer cells in the body.

Picture of whole body PET scan with tracer Fluorine18
Pictures from

Molecules and Compounds
A chemical unit called a MOLECULE can be formed when atoms bond together. Atoms can bond with like atoms or different atoms. When differing atoms bond, it is called a COMPOUND.

There are Two Types of Bonds • Ionic Bonding: Ions attracted by opposite charges. An ION is a
particle which contains a positive + or negative – charge. Atoms will give or take electron(s) to obtain stability. • Covalent Bonding: Atoms share electron(s) in the outermost shells. Double and triple bonding apply.
Covalent Bond: oxygen and two hydrogen Covalent Bond: two oxygen

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* If an atom has more than one shell, they are most stable with eight electrons in their outer shell.

 Atoms

and Molecules

 Living

Things and Water

 Molecules

and Their Functions  Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Properties of Water
• “Water is the most abundant molecule in living organisms…” • Electrons circle larger (O) atom more than smaller (H) atom due to stronger ability to attract • Water is a POLAR molecule : electrical charge is dispensed uneven whereas (O) has slight – charge and (H) has slight + charge. • At room temperature, water is a liquid because of hydrogen bonding • Waters temperature rises and falls gradually; it holds heat well. • “Water has a high heat of vaporization…” • Water becomes less dense at frozen temperatures • Water is a solvent which aids chemical reactions • Neutral pH HYDROGEN BOND: “Weak bond that arises between slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and slightly negative atom of another, or between parts of the same from Picture Human Biology molecule.” Some verbiage taken from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 24-25 by Sylvia S.
Picture of Hydrogen • “Water molecules are cohesive, and, therefore, liquids fill vessels…” Bonding among H2O

Properties of Water Continued
Any ion or molecule which interacts with water are called HYDROPHILIC, whereas ones that do not interact are called HYDROPHOBIC.

Acids and In living things, BUFFERS help to regulate and restrict pH change of a Bases
solution. Buffers help by taking up extra H+ or OH-. Acid Solution: Acids break up in water, releasing (H+). Have high (H+) Basic Solution: Bases either take up (H+) or release (OH-). Have low (H+)

pH Scale

Used to show the acidity or basicity in any given solution. The lower the number, the more acidic the solution is and the more H+. The higher the number, the more basic the solution is and the less H+.
Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 26

 Atoms

and Molecules  Living Things and Water  Molecules

and Their Functions
Lipids, Proteins and

 Carbohydrates,

Nucleic Acids

Molecules and their Functions
An ORGANIC MOLECULE is one which contains carbon and hydrogen Four Categories of Organic Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids MACROMOLECULE: contains many subunits DEHYDRATION REACTION: Molecule forms by removal of –OH and –H HYDROLYSIS REACTION: Breakdown subunits by adding H2O

Picture shows Dehydration & Hydrolysis reactions
Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 27

 Atoms

and Molecules  Living Things and Water  Molecules and Their Functions  Carbohydrates,

Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Carbohydrates: Used for immediate and stored
Simple Carbohydrates
energy
MONOSACCHARIDE: Carbon atoms low (3 to 7) DISACCHARIDE: Joining of two monosaccharides by dehydration reaction PENTOSE: 5-carbon sugar HEXOSE: 6-carbon sugar GLUCOSE: Hexose used as energy during cellular respiration Different POLYSACCHARIDE: Consists of many monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds CELLULOSE: Polysaccharide in plant cell walls GLYCOGEN: Stored form of glucose STARCH: Stored polysaccharides in plants/animals. Organized of glucose molecules with less chains of glucose

Complex Carbohydrates

Forms of Glucose

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Disaccharide containing 2 glucose molecules

Lipids: Energy rich molecules which do not
dissolve in H2O FATS: Animal origin; solid at
room temperature • Energy storage (long term) • Insulates major organs by adding a padded layer • Protects against heat loss • TRIGLYCERIDE: Three part structure: three fatty acid and one glycerol molecules
SATURATED: No double bonds between (C) atoms, inundated with (H) UNSATURATED: Double bonds in (C) wherever (H) is less than two per (C) TRANS-FATTY ACIDS: Created by partial hydrogenation of oils

OILS: Plant origin; liquid at
room temperature

Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 31

Fats can mix with water by emulsification. EMULSIFICATION is the process of breaking the lipids down into smaller droplets with an emulsifier such

Lipids Continued
PHOSPHOLIPIDS: “Molecule that forms the bilayer of the cell’s membrane…” • Head – polar, hydrophilic • Tail - nonpolar, hydrophobic STEROIDS: Complex of four (C) rings obtained from cholesterol. Examples are sex hormones testosterone and estrogen.

Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Pages 3132

Phospholipid Structure

Proteins
PROTEIN: A molecule comprised of polypeptide(s). Functions of Proteins: support, metabolic, transport, defense, regulation and motion. Some examples of protein or where it can be found: Hair and nails (keratin), skin (collagen), red blood cells (hemoglobin), muscles, antibodies, hormones, actin and myosin (contractile proteins).
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Amino Acids are made up from an amino group, an acid group, and an R group (rest of particular molecule). An amino acid will vary depending on its R group; some are polar while others are not. A PEPTIDE BOND is formed when two amino acids join together by dehydration reaction.

Proteins Continued
When an amino and acids bonding with an R group has been disturbed due to pH or temperature change, a process effecting the proteins shape known as denaturation occurs. occurs

There are Four Levels of Structure • PRIMARY STRUCTURE: Basic sequence of amino acids which are joined by peptide bonds • SECONDARY STRUCTURE: Polypeptides adopt certain directions or positions in space (alpha helix [chain coils] / pleated sheet [chain pleats]) • TERTIARY STRUCTURE: Three-dimensional 4. QUATERNARY STRUCTURE: The globular shape of secondarymore joining of two or structure polypeptides

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Nucleic Acids: Macromolecules made up of nucleotides
NUCLEOTIDE: Molecular structure consisting of three subunit molecules – a phosphate, a sugar (sugar deoxyribose or ribose) and a nitrogenous base. DNA/RNA are polymers DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid • Contains five carbon sugar deoxyribose • Bases – Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C) • Base can have two rings (A and G) or one ring (T and C) • Possesses genetic information in cells • Copy and distribute genetic information during cellular/organism reproduction • Double stranded/helix/ Base pairing RNA: Ribonucleic Acid • Contains five carbon sugar ribose • Base (U) replaced base (T) • Does not form helix/single stranded • DNA is rewritten in RNA form which allows it to be transferred to other parts of the cell with amino acid sequence information • Protein synthesis

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Backbone / Upright Sides

ATP (adenosine diphosphate): High energy
carrier • Composed of adenosine (adenine + ribose) and triphosphate • Bonds are unstable • Undergoes hydrolysis for energy: result is ADP (adenosine diphosphate) • After breakdown, the addition of phosphate molecule is used to rebuild ADT

Picture shows how ATP is hydrolyzed for energy use
Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 36

Works Cited
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