Compendium Review

Major Topic One: Cells
Table of Contents Part 1 Life and Characteristics Humans Relation to Animals Scientific Method Science, Technology, and Human Responsibility Part 2 Atoms and Molecules Living Things and Water Molecules and Their Functions Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic

Part 1
 Life

and Characteristics

 Humans

Relation to Animals  Scientific Method  Science, Technology, and Human Responsibility

Life and its Characteristics

Biology: “The science of life and of living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution. It includes botany and zoology and all their subdivisions.”

There are Seven Distinct Characteristics of Living Things 2. Organized 3. Obtain Materials and Energy 4. Reproduce 5. Grow and Develop 6. Homeostatic 7. React to Stimuli 8. Evolutionary History


All Living Things are Organized

All quoted information on this page is from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader (Page 3)

ATOM: “smallest unit of an element composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons.” MOLECULE: “Union of two or more atoms of the same or different elements.” CELL: “The structural and functional unit of all living things.” TISSUE: “A group of cells with a common structure and function.” ORGAN: “Composed of tissues functioning together for a specific task.” ORGAN SYSTEM: “Composed of several organs working together” ORGANISM: “An Individual; complex individuals contain organ systems.” POPULATION: “Organisms of the same species in a particular area.” COMMUNITY: “Interacting populations in a particular area.” ECOSYSTEM: “A community plus the physical environment.” BIOSPHERE: “Regions of the Earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere inhabited by living things.”


Picture from http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Molecule

Picture from

Picture from wiki/Organ_system

Picture from

Chart of Levels of Organization

1. When ATOMS merge together they form MOLECULES which create CELLS. There are several different types of CELLS, each with their own function. When a living thing is organized of numerous CELLS, they are said to be MULTICELLULAR. 2. When a collection of related CELLS carry out a specific function together, they are known as a TISSUE. When multiple types of TISSUE combine to execute a specialized task, they are known as an ORGAN SYSTEM. 3. Living things which contain an assembly of ORGAN SYSTEMS are known as ORGANISMS; furthermore, a collection of organisms which are able to breed and produce offspring are known as a SPECIES. In any particular location, occupants of the same SPECIES are called a POPULATION. 4. The POPULATIONS of diverse SPECIES living together make up a COMMUNITY, and any particular COMMUNITY interacting with their physical environment forms an ECOSYSTEM. Lastly, all of the different ECOSYSTEMS which inhabit the planet

This Picture is from page 3 of Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader

Obtain Materials and Energy
Living things require materials and energy from nature in order to live. The cells of an organism need the proper nutrients to carry out their specific functions and help the organism to perform daily tasks.
Picture from http://www.outofafricapark.coml

Cells are created by cells; thus, all living this reproduce. The act of producing offspring helps to ensure a species existence. All living things can create more of themselves due to the replication of genes (DNA molecules). DNA contains information which dictates how new cells will be organized and metabolize.


Acorn to Tree

Grow and Develop
All living things undergo a development process from birth to death. Development of an organism includes growth and repair.
Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 5

Mother & Offspring
Picture from

The normal conditions upheld in a cell or organism is known as Homeostasis. For example, the organ systems of humans all work together to perform certain functions such as absorbing nutrients and oxygen, and excreting waste. They also adjust their processes to maintain regularity such as sweating when the body temperature starts to rise.

Picture from

cold-blooded tarantula on warm hand

Evolutio Each organism is unique because n
it can adapt to changing environments. A species will modify throughout generation to conform to changing environments. For example, some frogs can change their colors depending on physical or psychological surroundings which may help them hide from predators or blend in during

internal and external environments. A plant may grow towards an area which provides better sunlight and a person may scream out of fear during a movie.

Respond to Living things respond to the Stimuli

Can you see


 Life

and Characteristics

 Scientific


Method  Science, Technology, and Human Responsibility

How are Humans Related to Animals?
   

Living Things Fall into 3 Categories Culture Biosphere Members Biosphere Threats

Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 6

How are Humans Related to Animals?
Living Things Fall Into Three Domains

Domain Eukarya (membrane-bounded nucleus) A. Kingdom Animalia (Vertebrates) B. Kingdom Plantae C. Kingdom Fungi D. Kingdom Protista


Domain Archaea and Bacteria (no membrane-bounded nucleus)

Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 6

Picture from

Species, such as human beings, have certain behaviors, beliefs, values and skills which are typically passed down from generations. They can also be acquired through interaction with others. Some examples are language, tool use, and religion. Eart h

Biosphere Members
Living things are found on the surface of Earth, in its waters and air. We all inhibit the biosphere and depend on the biosphere’s natural ecosystems for waste decomposition, break down of pollutant particles, crop irrigation, drinking water, food, and beauty.

Picture from http://en.wik iki/Christiani ty

Jesus: Sermon on the Mount

Biosphere Threats
Human activity is altering Earth’s biodiversity; resulting in the extinction of different species on a daily base. Anytime a natural ecosystem is modified for human use it can decrease certain species

Alteration of what was once natural ecosystem

Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 7

 Life

and Characteristics  Humans Relation to Animals  Scientific
 Science,


Technology, and Human Responsibility

Scientific Method
SCIENTIFIC THERORIES help us to understand the different orders of, and in, the natural world. For theories to be proved or disproved, information must be collected and processed by a SCIENTIFIC METHOD. The scientific method has different steps which must be completed before answering a theory. • Observation: A scientist will study new data, as well as previous data, and ask questions to help form a hypothesis. • Hypothesis: Theory which is proposed after making observations. • Experiment: Process to test the hypothesis with further observation. • Conclusion: Analyzing the results from the experiment. They will either support or reject the hypothesis.

Diagram showing step-by-step explanation of scientific method procedure

Picture from

 Life

and Characteristics  Humans Relation to Animals  Scientific Method  Science,

Technology, and Human Responsibility

Science, Technology, and Human Responsibility
• “The branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science, and pure science… • The terminology of an art, science, etc.; technical nomenclature… • A technological process, invention, method, or the like… • The sum of the ways in which social groups provide themselves with the material objects of their civilization.” Terminology from

Technology can be described as many different things; however one thing that is constant about technology is it contains benefits and risks. From the manmade effects on natural ecosystems to GM foods or stem cell research, human values will always contradict peoples opinions of what is right or wrong. In the end, it is human responsibility to listen to what science tells us

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.