Part 4

 Tissue
      

Types

Connective Tissue Muscular Tissue Nervous Tissue Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions Integumentary System Organ System Homeostasis

Types of Tissues
Tissue is a collection of comparable cells that carry out common duties.

There are Four Types of Tissue 1. CONNECTIVE TISSUE 2. MUSCULAR TISSUE 3. NERVOUS TISSUE 4. EPITHELIAL TISSUE

Tissue Types Muscular Tissue Nervous Tissue Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions Integumentary System Organ System Homeostasis

 Connective
     

Tissue

Connective Tissue

Connective tissue helps attach materials together through fibrous, supportive, bone and fluid connective tissues. All connective tissues have three common properties: specialized cells, ground substance, and protein fibers. The GROUND SUBSTANCE is chemical substances that saturates space in between cells and fibers. There are three different types of fibers: COLLAGEN FIBERS are constructed of a protein (collagen) which aids in flexibility and durability. Similar to collagen fibers, the RETICULAR FIBERS branch outward to form thin support systems. Lastly, a protein known as elastin makes up ELASTIC FIBERS which offer flexibility.

FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
• Loose fibrous – Fibroblast cells; forms protective layer over organs and aids epithelium. • Dense fibrous – Fibroblast cells; created from closely bundled collagen fibers. Often found in tendons/ligaments connections to bones/joints. •Adipose tissue – Loose connective tissue where cells swell to store fat. Tissue protects
Picture from

Loose Fibrous

Adipose

Dense Fibrous

Connective Tissue Continued
Supportive Connective Tissue
SUPPORTIVE TISSUE aids in the formation of bone and cartilage. Due to its solid matrix, this tissues cells usually occupy small cavities known as LACUNAE. There are three different types of cartilage: HYALINE CARTILAGE is constructed of a whitish matrix with thin collagen fibers. This type of cartilage is found at the end of bones, in the trachea, and in the nose. Similar to Hyaline, ELASTIC CARTILAGE contains more elastic fibers which yields more flexibility. Elastic cartilage is found in the outer ear area, the voice box (larynx), and the epiglottis. Lastly, the FIBROCARTILAGE consists of very durable collagen fibers which can endure pressure/weight and absorb shock. Fibrocartilage is found in the joint of the pubic bones, spinal disks, and in Hyaline knee cartilage. Cartilag e

Fibrocartilag e
Picture from http://www.victoriacollege.edu/dept/bio/Belltutorials/Histology%20Tutorial/ Basic%20Tissues/Connective%20Tissue.html#Elastic%20CT

Picture from http://en.wik ipedia.org/w iki/Fibrocarti

Connective Tissue Continued
Bone
BONES are the firmest connective tissue which is constructed of a hard matrix and collagen fibers. Bones get some of their structure from OSSEOUS TISSUE, which lends to the cylindrical shape of them (OSTEONS). Long and dense COMPACT BONES have rings of hard matrix in the osteons. At the ends of long bones is a lighter structure known as SPONGY BONE. This material has a separated formation permitting space for marrow and blood vessels.
Spongy Bone Osteon Compact Bone

Pictures from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone#Compact_bone and Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 63

Connective Tissue Continued
Fluid
BLOOD: Plasma liquid with formed elements (red and white blood cells, and platelets). Bloods duties include carrying oxygen and nutrients throughout the body to other tissues fluid and circulates heat. RED BLOOD CELLS transport oxygen throughout the body by loosely binding the oxygen with the cells HEMOGLOBIN, an iron containing structure. Red blood cells do not contain a nucleus. On the other hand, WHITE BLOOD CELLS contain a nucleus and are larger in size. Also, they have a more translucent appearance. White blood cells help to fight infections by either consuming the pathogens through phagocytosis or creating antibodies to fight infections. PLATELETS are present in bone marrow where they aid in the reconstruction of broken blood vessels. Platelets are pieces of cells. Picture of elements found in blood

LYMPH: Yellowish fluid containing white blood cells. Lymph originates from tissue fluid and is cleansed in the LYMPH NODES which is lymphatic tissue on

Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 64

 

Tissue Types Connective Tissue Nervous Tissue Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions Integumentary System Organ System Homeostasis

 Muscular
    

Tissue

Muscular Tissue
SKELETON MUSCLE: Found where muscles attach to bone and aid in movement. The fibers are long cylinder shapes that are formed by the combining of cells, resulting in multiple nuclei.

Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 65

SMOOTH MUSCLE: Found in the walls of blood vessels and some internal organs. Aids in the transfer of substances.

CARDIAC MUSLE: Found in heart walls. Its function is to pump blood.

  

Tissue Types Connective Tissue Muscular Tissue Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions Integumentary System Organ System Homeostasis

 Nervous
   

Tissue

Nervous Tissue
Nerve tissue consists of Neurons and Neuroglia.
Dendrites

NEURONS: A cell consisting of dendrites, a body and axon. DENDRITES are branches off the cell body that receive signals. The CELL BODY contains a nucleus and cytoplasm. An AXON carries out nerve impulses from the body.

NEUROGLIA: Cells found in nervous tissue. Neuroglia support neurons through nourishment.

A xon

Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page

   

Tissue Types Connective Tissue Muscular Tissue Nervous Tissue

Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions
Integumentary System Organ System Homeostasis

  

Epithelial Tissue
EPITHELIAL: Constant layer of firmly packed cells. SIMPLE EPITHELIA: Single layer of cells attributed from three cell types. SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM is a layer found in lungs and blood vessels. It is made of compacted cells and aids in protection. CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM is a layer of cubed cells found in glands, lining the ovaries and kidney tubules. Cuboidal epithelium aids in absorption. COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM are rectangular shaped cells with the nuclei at the bottom. It is found lining the digestive area and aids in absorption.
Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader pages 68-69

Epithelial Tissue Continued
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM lines the trachea and aids in ejecting impurities. Mucus helps to trap particles and cilia carries it to the throat area. TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM lines organs which stretch. Found in bladder, urethra and ureters.
Transitional epithelia of bladder

STATIFIED EPITHELIA is found in the nose, mouth, esophagus, anal canal and vagina linings. The cells are stacked into layers which offer protection.

GLANDULAR EPITHELIA is any epithelium which secretes products. A cell or a group of cells that secrete products are known as GLANDS. Secretion to an outer surface is done by EXOCRINE GLANDS, whereas ENDOCRINE GLANDS secrete products internally through the bloodstream. Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 69 and

Cell Junctions

Cell junctions aid tissues in their functions by joining cells together either by tight junctions, adhesion junctions or gap junctions.

A. TIGHT JUNCTIONS: Cell layers become resilient by creating a tough barrier by the joining of plasma membrane proteins. B. ADHESION JUNCTIONS: Cells cytoskeleton fibers are attached to one another. Found in tissues which stretch, like skin. C. GAP JUNCTIONS: A junction formed by two neighboring plasma membranes, allowing molecules/ions to circulate

Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page

    

Tissue Types Connective Tissue Muscular Tissue Nervous Tissue Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions

 Integumentary
 

System

Organ System Homeostasis

Integumentary System: Skin and other
organs
SKIN: Covers the body, protects tissues, prevents H2O loss, regulates temperature, and protects against diseases from entering the body. The skin contains two sections, the epidermis and the dermis. Certain cells can produce Vitamin D with the help of UV radiation. EPIDERMIS: Stratified squamous epithelium. Stem cells get new epidermal cells for skin renewal. DERMIS: Thick fibrous (collagen and elastic) tissue under the epidermis. Allows movement and flexibility without tearing. Blood vessels deliver nutrients to the skin while regulating body temperature. Contains sensory receptors. SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER: LAYER Constructed of adipose and loose connective tissue. Offers protective layer against external abuse.
Nails, hair follicles, and sweat glands are accessory organs of

Epidermi s

Dermi s

Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader

Subcutaneous

     

Tissue Types Connective Tissue Muscular Tissue Nervous Tissue Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions Integumentary System Homeostasis

 Organ

System

Organ System Overview
 

 

INTEGUMENTARY: Skin, hair, hair muscles, nails, blood vessels, glands, and nerves protect body, regulates body temperature, and creates vitamin D from UV radiation. CARDIOVASCULAR: Heart muscle pumps blood into vessels where nutrients/oxygen are delivered to cells. Blood removes carbon dioxide and cell waste while circulating heat. Red blood cells transport oxygen while white blood cells fight infections. Platelets aid in vessel repair. Controls Fluid and pH. LYMPHATIC: System collects tissue fluids, absorbs fat, and stores white blood cells. Helps regulate fluid balance. IMMUNE: Includes all cells which help to protect the organism from disease. DIGESTIVE: Takes food and breaks it down into nutrient molecules for cells. Eliminates waste. RESPIRATORY: Sustains breathing by taking oxygen in and removing carbon dioxide. Also helps manage normal pH. URINARY: Helps regulate fluid balance and manage normal pH through excretion of waste products. SKELETAL: Gives body shape while protecting organs. Skeletal muscles aid in movement. Blood cells are created from marrow and minerals are stored in the system. MUSCULAR: Muscle contraction aids in movement and posture. Smooth muscle helps organs contract which releases heat and warms the body. NERVOUS: Brain, spinal cord and nerves receive sensory data which is stored. Nerve impulses are sent to muscles to aid in movement. ENDOCRINE: Glands produce hormones into blood. Aids in control of fluids, pH balance, and metabolism. Helps maintain reproductive organs. REPRODUCTIVE: Creates and moves gametes and hormones; births offspring.

DORSAL CAVITY: Contains the Cranial Cavity and the Vertebral Cavity. CRANIAL: Brain VERTEBRAL: Spinal Cord

Organ System Overview Continued

VENTRAL CAVITY: Contains the Thoracic Cavity, Abdominal Cavity, and Pelvic Cavity. THORACIC: Heart, lungs, and esophagus ABDOMINAL: Stomach, Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, Gallbladder, and Intestines PELVIC: Reproductive organs

Four Types of Body Membranes

MUCOUS: Loose fibrous epithelial tissue which lines the interior respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Goblet cells secrete mucus to from bacterial or virus penetration. SEROUS: Thoracic cavity and lungs are covered by pleurae, heart is covered by pericardial sac, and the abdominal cavity is covered by the peritoneum. The abdominal organs are attached to the wall by mesentery (double layer peritoneum). Membranes remain lubricated by watery secretion. SYNOVIAL: Loose connective tissue lines cavities of joints and secrete lubricative solution to keep bones moving freely. MENINGES: Protective tissue which covers the brain and spinal cord.
A muscle known as DIAPHRAM separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.

Organ System Overview Continued
Dorsal Cavity

Ventral Cavity

Thoracic Cavity Abdominal Cavity
Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 77

      

Tissue Types Connective Tissue Muscular Tissue Nervous Tissue Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions Integumentary System Organ System

 Homeostasis

Homeostasis: The body’s capacity to physically regulate its internal
environment is known as HOMEOSTASIS. All systems work together to help maintain homeostasis.
Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 79

The normal conditions upheld in a cell or organism is known as Homeostasis. For example, the organ systems of humans all work together to perform certain functions such as absorbing nutrients and oxygen, and excreting waste. They also adjust their processes to maintain regularity such as sweating when the body

Homeostasis Continued
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: The internal environment stays fairly stable due to negative feedback mechanisms through sensors and the control center. When a change occurs, a sensor will notify the control center which release an effect to overturn the change. Example of Negative Feedback Cycle

POSITIVE FEEDBACK: When the internal environment senses stimulation from nerve impulses, the brain sends positive signals to not only keep the stimulation going, but to make it stronger.

Works Cited
Amarin. Lipophilic Platform – Plasma Membrane. Accessed 4 Feb 2008. <http://www.amarincorp.com/science_and_technology/lipophilic_platform.452.399.html>. "Bone." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 6 Feb 2008, 05:32 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2 Feb 2008 < http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bone&oldid=189439576>. "Cell." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 1 Feb 2008, 15:34 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cell_%28biology%29&oldid=188815215>. "Cell nucleus." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 1 Feb 2008, 01:41 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cell_nucleus&oldid=188933496>. "Eukaryote." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 1 Feb 2008, 21:56 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eukaryote&oldid=189118974>. "Fibrocartilage." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 27 Oct 2007, 13:26 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fibrocartilage&oldid=167424710>. "Fibrous connective tissue." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 7 Dec 2007, 11:12 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fibrous_connective_tissue&oldid=176345853>. Mader, Sylvia S. Human Biology. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2008. Pages 41-82. Biology. Menlo School. Cytoskeleton. Accessed 5 Feb 2008. <http://sun.menloschool.org/~birchler/cells/animals/cytoskeleton/>. "Mitochondrion." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 22 Jan 2008, 18:59 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 6 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mitochondrion&oldid=186166731>. "Osmosis." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 4 Feb 2008, 21:04 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 5 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Osmosis&oldid=189106016>. "Transitional epithelium." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 23 Jan 2008, 07:06 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 3 Feb 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Transitional_epithelium&oldid=186300028>. Victoria College. Biology Department - Connective Tissues. Accessed 5 Feb 2008. <http://www.victoriacollege.edu/dept/bio/Belltutorials/Histology%20Tutorial/Basic%20Tissues/Connective%20Tissue. h tml>.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.