Compendium Review

Major Topic One: Cells
Table of Contents
Part 3  Cell Organization  Plasma Membrane  Nucleus and Proteins  Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement  Mitochondria  Cellular Metabolism

Part 4  Tissue Types  Connective Tissue  Muscular Tissue  Nervous Tissue  Epithelial Tissue and Cell Junctions  Integumentary System  Organ System  Homeostasis

Part 3
 Cell
    

Organization

Plasma Membrane Nucleus and Proteins Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement Mitochondria Cellular Metabolism

What is a Cell & How is it Organized?
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A cell is the basic unit of life. All living things are constructed of cells Cells are produced from preexisting cells Humans, for example, are multicellular organisms Cells are specialized; each having a specific function and structure Contain a nucleus (membrane encased structure) where DNA and protein is located

PROKARYOTIC CELLS • About 3.5 Billion years old • First known cells having no nucleus • Plasma membrane (Controls material entrance/exit of molecules) • Bacteria and archaea • Only one or two organelles (no endomembrane system) • DNA not surrounded by membrane

EUKARYOTIC CELLS • About 1.7 Billion years old • Believed to have evolved from archaea • Contain a nucleus • Plasma membrane (Controls material entrance/exit of molecules) • Many types of organelles • DNA surrounded by membrane

Picture of Prokaryotic Cell
http://en.wiki pedia.org/wik i/Eukaryote http://en.wiki pedia.org/wik i/Cell_%28bio logy%29

Picture of Eukaryotic

How Did a Eukaryotic Cell Form?
1. Plasma membrane folds inward surrounding DNA 2. Growth of membrane results in endomembrane system 3. Gained protomitochondria ~ mitochondria (Animal Cell) 4. Gained Protochloroplast ~ chloroplast (Plant Cell)

Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 44

PLASMA MEMBRANE: Phospholipid bilayer with proteins present CYTOPLASM: Semi-fluid filling in cells that contains the organelles ORGANELLES: Structures in cytoplasm with specific duties ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM: Internal membrane system

Cell Organization

 Plasma
   

Membrane

Nucleus and Proteins Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement Mitochondria Cellular Metabolism

Plasma Membrane
The PLASMA MEMBRANE is the outer plasma layer comprised of a phospholipid bilayer with attached proteins. The membrane separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment, helping to keep the cell intact.

The membrane is SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE because it only allows some smaller molecules and ions to enter the cytoplasm and exit.

Fatty Acid HydrophilicTails Polar

Picture From http://www.amarincorp .com/science_and_tech nology/lipophilic_platfo rm.452.399.html

Plasma Membrane and its Function
DIFFUSION: Molecules and ions can transfer across the plasma membrane by diffusion; taking higher particle concentration areas and moving the particles to lower concentrated areas. OSMOSIS: Transmission of H2O across the plasma membrane. Osmosis consists of H2O and a solute. If the solute has a higher concentration than inside a cell, it is known as a HYPERTONIC SOLUTION. If the solute has the same concentration as in a cell, it is known as an ISOTONIC SOLUTION. If the solute has a lower concentration than inside a cell, it is known as a
Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 47

Picture from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/O smosis

TONICITY: “… Concentration of the solute in a solution…”
Verbiage from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 47

Plasma Membrane and its Function Continued
FACILITATED TRANSPORT: Sugar molecules and amino acids are vehicled across the plasma membrane by way of carrier proteins. The cell does not use energy transferring substances from higher concentrations to lower concentrations. There are specialized transporters for certain molecules. ACTIVE TRANSPORT: Molecules are vehicled across the plasma membrane by protein carriers from a lower concentrated area to a higher concentrated area. The cell uses energy from the breakdown of ATP to pump the substances to higher concentrated areas. Facilitated Transfer

Active Transport
Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page

Plasma Membrane and its Function Continued
ENDOCYTOSIS is a process where the plasma membrane surrounds a substance and brings it into the cell.
* Some cells can collect pathogens through endocytosis which is known as PHAGOCYTOSIS.

EXOCYTOSIS is a process where substances will exit the plasma membrane of a cell by fusing with the membrane to form a
Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 48

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Cell Organization Plasma Membrane

 Nucleus
  

and Proteins

Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement Mitochondria Cellular Metabolism

Nucleus and Proteins
The NUCLEUS contains the cells genetic data and controls the activities within the cell. It is separated from the cytoplasm by a double membrane called the NUCLEUR ENVELOPE. The nucleus also contains tiny threads called CHROMATIN which are made up of DNA and proteins. The chromatins’ are located in a semiliquid fluid called NUCLEOPLASM. Right before a cell divides, chromatin shrinks into a smaller structure called a CHROMOSOME. where 1. Nucleolus,
ribosomal subunits are created

POLYRIBOSOMES: A ribosome, or group of ribosomes’, found in the cytoplasm

2. Nucleus 3.

Ribosome are RIBOSOMES

membranous structures made of proteins and rRNA

Picture from http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Cell_nucleus

5. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum ROUGH ER is a membranous system of channels and sacs where

Endomembrane System
The ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM is made of an assortment of organelles involved in transport inside a cell. The endomembrane system includes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vesicles. ROUGH ER is a membranous
system of channels and sacs where ribosomes’ attach on the cytoplasm side. Proteins are synthesized here. SMOOTH ER synthesizes the phospholipids and does not have any ribosomes’ attached. GOLGI APPARATUS modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids. The packages that leave the Golgi apparatus, known as VESICLES, move to different parts inside the cell. One vesicle, called a LYSOSOME, contains hydrolytic enzymes which
Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader page 50

Lysosome

Golgi Apparatus

Vesicle Smooth ER Rough ER

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Cell Organization Plasma Membrane Nucleus and Proteins

 Cytoskeleton

Movement

and Cell

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Mitochondria Cellular Metabolism

Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement
Every cell has a collection of protein fibers known as the CYTOSKELETON. The cytoskeleton gives a cell shape and helps organelles navigate throughout a cell.
The cytoskeleton is made up of microtubules, centrosomes, actin and intermediate filaments. A MICROTUBULES is a cylinder shaped structure consisting of 13 long rows called TUBULIN. Not only can organelles move along the microtubules, but the microtubules give shape to cells. Microtubules help move chromosomes during cell division. The CENTROSOME is the microtubule organizing hub. ACTIN FILAMENTS are skinny fibers made of a protein (actin) and aids in cell movement. INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS are ropelike structures

Picture from http://sun.menloschool.org/~birchler/cells/animals/cytoskeleton/

Depending on what organ the cells are attached to, cilia and flagella are involved in different types of movements. CILLIUM are little string-like projections from the plasma membrane and are Cili used to either move a something, like mucus out of a windpipe, or facilitate in the Flagell movement of a something, like an Picture from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader ovum down the Page 51 fallopian tubes. FLAGELLUM are long skinny branches that Cilia a cell help push and flagella are both constructed of microtubules and covered with through fluid-like a plasma membrane. Structures called BASAL BODIES, substances. consisting of microtubules and proteins, is where cilia

Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement Continued

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Cell Organization Plasma Membrane Nucleus and Proteins Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement Cellular Metabolism

 Mitochondria

Mitochondria
MITOCHONDIA is the organelles which produce ATP during cellular respiration. They have their own genes and can replicate themselves. CELLULAR RESPIRATION is a process that occurs when mitochondria use oxygen (releasing carbon dioxide and H2O) to create ATP. ATP molecules are made when the mitochondria switch the energy of glucose materials into ATP energy. CRISTAE are the inner folds of the mitochondrion. The inner space, called the MATRIX, is filled with a gel fluid. The matrix contains enzymes which are responsible for breaking down glucose materials. Enzymes aid at speeding up chemical reactions.

Picture from http://en.wikipedia.o rg/wiki/Mitochondria

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Cell Organization Plasma Membrane Nucleus and Proteins Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement Mitochondria

 Cellular

Metabolism

Cellular Metabolism & Respiration: All chemical
reactions inside cell, run by genes within DNA
An enzyme’s SUBSTRATE is the participant in the reaction. An enzyme brings a substrate to an ACTIVE SITE for reaction. The substrates fit together with the enzymes to form a product. When a substrate and an enzyme bond to form a reaction and the substrate is broken down and released, this is known as DEGRADATION. If substrates bond with an enzyme and are released as one substrate, this is known as SYNTHESIS. Nonprotein molecules called COENZYMES help the activities that enzymes perform.

Degradati on

Synthesis
Pictures from Human Biology by Sylvia S. Mader Page 53

Cellular Metabolism & Respiration Continued Cellular Respiration
• Cells receive oxygen and glucose • Oxygen and glucose broken down to CO2 and H2O • Glucose is broken down by glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and electron transport chain GLYCOLYSIS takes place in the cytoplasm and is the process of splitting a C6 molecule in half. Since glycolysis does not need oxygen to perform, it is considered ANAEROBIC. In removing hydrogens and electrons, energy gets released. This energy supplies two ATP molecules. CITRIC ACID CYCLE takes place in the mitochondria's matrix. It involves a sequence of reactions which releases CO2 and carries hydrogen and electrons away. Two ATP per molecule are created. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN are fixed in the cristae and hold carrier proteins which pass the electrons around. As each electron is passed from carrier to carrier it loses energy which is used for ATP creation. by Sylvia S. Mader page Picture from Human Biology Production of ATP/Cellular Respiration

Cellular Metabolism & Respiration Continued
FERMENTATION is the anaerobic breakdown of glucose for immediate energy consumption. The process does not function with the electron transport or citric acid cycle because oxygen is not available. While fermentation can produce two ATP, it generates toxins. During exercise, lactate acid can build up causing muscle cramps. When the acid builds up, it is because the muscles have been depleted of oxygen and start fermenting (called oxygen deficit).

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