You are on page 1of 55

Water and Carbon: The Chemical Basis of Life

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Basic Atomic Structure


Atoms are composed of: Protons positively charged particles Neutrons neutral particles Electrons negatively charged particles Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. Electrons are found in orbitals surrounding the nucleus.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Elements The Building Blocks of Chemical Evolution


Every different atom has a characteristic number of protons in the nucleus, called the atomic number. Atoms with the same atomic number have the same chemical properties and belong to the same element.
Forms of an element with different numbers of neutrons are isotopes. The mass number is the number of protons + neutrons

Eg: Carbon -6 neutrons +6 protons=12 mass number - 7 neutrons + 6 protons =13 mass number (isotope)

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Electron Arrangement around the Nucleus


Electrons move around atomic nuclei in specific regions called orbitals. Each orbital can hold up to two electrons. Orbitals are grouped into levels called electron shells. Electron shells are numbered, with smaller numbers closer to the nucleus.

The electrons in the outermost shell are called valence electrons.


Elements commonly found in organisms have at least one unpaired valence electron. The number of unpaired electrons in an atom is its valence.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemical Bonding
Unfilled electron orbitals allow formation of chemical bonds, and atoms are most stable when each electron orbital is filled.

Covalent bond: Each atoms unpaired valence electrons are shared by both nuclei to fill their orbitals. Substances held together by covalent bonds are called molecules.
Ionic bond: Electrons are transferred from one atom to another.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Covalent Bonds
Electrons are not always shared equally. An atom in a molecule with a high electronegativity will hold the electrons more tightly and have a partial negative charge (), whereas the other atom will have a partial positive charge (+). O> N> C=~ H Differences in electronegativity dictate how electrons are distributed in covalent bonds. Nonpolar covalent bond: Electrons are evenly shared between two atoms and the bond is symmetrical. Polar covalent bond: Electrons are asymmetrically shared.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Ions and Ionic Bonds


An atom or molecule that carries a charge is called an ion. Cation: An atom that loses an electron and becomes positively charged. Anion: An atom that gains an electron and becomes negatively charged. The resulting attraction between oppositely charged ions is an ionic bond.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Electron-Sharing Continuum


The degree to which electrons are shared in chemical bonds forms a continuum, from equal sharing in nonpolar covalent bonds, to unequal sharing in polar covalent bonds, to the transfer of electrons in ionic bonds.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

How Many Bonds Can an Atom Have?


The number of unpaired electrons determines the number of bonds an atom can make.

Atoms with more than one unpaired electron can form multiple single bonds or double or triple bonds.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Representing Molecules
The shape of a simple molecule is governed by the geometry of its bonds.

Molecular formulas indicate the numbers and types of atoms in a molecule (e.g., H2O, CH4).
Structural formulas indicate which atoms are bonded together and whether the bonds are single, double, or triple bonds. Ball-and-stick models and space-filling models show 3D geometry.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemical Reactions
Chemical reactions occur when: 1. One substance is combined with another. Atoms are rearranged in molecules, or small molecules combine to form larger molecules. 2. One substance is broken down into another substance. Molecules are split into atoms or smaller molecules. In most cases, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds form.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Quantifying Molecules
The molecular weight of a molecule is the sum of the mass numbers of all the atoms in the molecule. Eg: water =1+1+16=18g One mole, or 6.022 1023 molecules, has a mass equal to the molecular weight expressed in grams. The concentration of a substance in a solution is typically expressed as molarity (M), which is the number of moles per liter. Eg: NaCl=23+35=58g =1 mole 58g in 1l of water = 1M(molarity)

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Why Is Water Such an Efficient Solvent?


Life is based on water because water is a great solvent.
The covalent bonds in water are polar because oxygen has a greater electronegativity than hydrogen. Oxygen has a partial negative charge. Hydrogen has a partial positive charge.

Hydrogen bonds are the weak electrical attractions between the partially negative oxygen of one water molecule and the partially positive hydrogen of a different water molecule. Can also form between a water molecule and another polar molecule.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Water and Hydrogen Bonds


Ions and polar molecules stay in solution because of their interactions with waters partial charges. These atoms and molecules are said to be hydrophilic. Eg? Uncharged and nonpolar compounds do not dissolve in water and are said to be hydrophobic. Eg?

Hydrogen bonding makes it possible for almost any charged or polar molecule to dissolve in water.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Correlation of Waters Structure and Properties


Water is unique due to its small size, bent shape, highly polar covalent bonds, and overall polarity.

Water also has several remarkable properties, largely due to its ability to form hydrogen bonds. Water is: 1. Cohesive 2. Adhesive 3. Denser liquid is denser than solid 4. Able to absorb large amounts of energy5. Surface tension-water surface elastic property

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

A Closer Look at the Properties of Water


Cohesion binding between like molecules Results in high surface tension

Adhesion binding between unlike molecules


Water expands as it changes from a liquid to a solid. This is why ice floats Water has an extraordinarily large capacity for absorbing heat. High specific heat (amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of substrate by 1 C) High heat of vaporization (the energy required to change 1g of it from liquid to gas)
0

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Properties of Water

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

AcidBase Reactions and pH


Proton [hydrogen ion (H+)] concentration is the basis of the pH scale. pH expresses proton concentration in a solution. The pH of pure water is 7. Acids have a pH of less than 7. Bases have a pH of greater than 7. In acidbase reactions, a proton donor (acid) transfers a proton to a proton acceptor (base).

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The pH Scale and Buffers


The pH scale is logarithmic: pH = log [H+]

Greater H+ concentration lower pH more acidic Lower H+ concentration higher pH more basic/alkaline
Buffers are compounds that minimize changes in pH.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemical Evolution Theory


Simple molecules present on ancient Earth reacted to create larger, more complex molecules. Eg: protein, carbohydrates This may have happened in: The atmosphere -volcanic gasses (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen) Deep-sea vents-rich in metals (iron ,nickel)

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

How Do Chemical Reactions Happen?


Chemical reactions have reactants and products. For example: CO2(g) + H2O(l) H2CO3(aq) Chemical equilibrium occurs when the forward and reverse reactions proceed at the same rate and the quantities of reactants and products remain constant. Endothermic reactions must absorb heat to proceed, but exothermic reactions release heat.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

What Is Energy?

Energy is the capacity to do work or supply heat. This capacity exists in one of two waysas a stored (potential) or -as an active motion (kinetic).

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy


Stored energy is called potential energy. An objects position determines its ability to store energy. For example: Electrons in an outer shell (farther from the positively charged nucleus) have more potential energy than do electrons in an inner shell. The energy of movement is called kinetic energy or thermal energy, which is measured as temperature. Low-temperature objects have slower molecules than hightemperature objects.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Heat and the First Law of Thermodynamics


Heat is the thermal energy transferred between objects of different temperatures.

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved it cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transferred or transformed.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

What Makes a Chemical Reaction Spontaneous?


Chemical reactions are spontaneous if they proceed on their own, without any continuous external influence such as added energy.

The spontaneity of a reaction is determined by two factors: 1. The amount of potential energy Products of spontaneous reactions have less potential energy than the reactants. Eg: methane react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water 2. The degree of order Products of spontaneous reactions are less ordered than the reactants. Eg:TNT explodes and give carbon dioxyde,carbon monoxide, various nitrogen oxide gasses
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics


Entropy (S) is the amount of disorder in a group of molecules. The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy always increases in an isolate system. In other words, chemical reactions result in products with less ordered (usable) energy.

In general, physical and chemical processes proceed in the direction that results in lower potential energy and increased disorder.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Gibbs Free-Energy Change


The Gibbs free-energy change (G) determines whether a reaction is spontaneous or requires energy.

G < 0 is an exergonic spontaneous reaction. G > 0 is an endergonic reaction that requires energy input. G = 0 is a reaction that is at equilibrium.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Temperature and Concentration Affect Reactions


Breaking and forming bonds depends on collisions between substances. This allows electrons to interact. The rate of a reaction depends upon the number of collisions. The number of collisions is dependent on the temperature and concentration of the reactants: Higher temperature more collisions faster reaction Higher concentration more collisions faster reaction

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Energy Inputs and the Start of Chemical Evolution


Formation of formaldehyde (H2CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is the first step in chemical evolution and requires energy input.

Photons are packets of light energy emitted by the Sun.


High-energy photons can break molecules apart by knocking electrons away from valence shells. The resulting free radicals have unpaired electrons and are extremely unstable and highly reactive.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemical Energy Is a Form of Potential Energy


Significant amounts of H2CO and HCN could form under the temperature and concentration conditions that were likely on ancient Earth. These products have more potential energy than the reactants. Potential energy stored in chemical bonds is called chemical energy. Thus: solar energy (energy of the Sun) was converted into chemical energy (in H2CO and HCN).

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Importance of Carbon


Carbon is the most versatile atom on Earth. Because of its four valence electrons, carbon can form many covalent bonds. Carbon-containing molecules can form an almost limitless array of molecular shapes with different combinations of single and double bonds. The formation of carboncarbon bonds was an important event in chemical evolution.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Functional Groups: Determinants of Chemical Behavior


The carbon atoms in an organic molecule furnish the skeleton that gives the molecule its overall shape. Amino and carboxyl groups: Attract or drop a proton, respectively Carbonyl groups: Sites of reactions that link molecules into larger, more-complex compounds Hydroxyl groups: Act as weak acids Phosphate groups: Have two negative charges Sulfhydryl groups: Link together via disulfide bonds
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Key Concepts
Molecules form when atoms bond to each other. Chemical bonds are based on electron sharing. The degree of electron sharing varies depending on the type of bond formed. Of all small molecules, water is the most important for life. Water is highly polar and readily forms hydrogen bonds, making it an extremely efficient solvent.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Key Concepts
Energy is the capacity to do work or supply heat, and can be (1) a stored potential or (2) an active motion. Chemical energy is a form of potential energy, stored in chemical bonds. Chemical reactions tend to be spontaneous if they lead to lower potential energy and higher entropy, and nonspontaneous if they require an input of energy. Most of the important compounds in organisms contain carbon.

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.