Genetics Online Lab

Each individual has a genotype, or their own specific genes which each trait can be attributed to. Offspring inherit these genes from their parents following fertilization. To fully understand how one inherits genes from their parents, you must understand meiosis and its important stages in the production of gametes. Before meiosis starts its two stages, the DNA has replicated itself and now has two chromosomes for each gene. These chromosomes are known as homologues because each pair of chromosomes are alike. During meiosis I a diploid cell, or a cell containing two copies of each type of chromosome, divides into two daughter haploid cells, or cells with half the chromosomes as the parent cell. Next is the meiosis II stage where both of the haploid daughter cells divide themselves to produce four haploid daughter cells. Each one of these four haploid daughter cells has half of the chromosomes as the parent cell; so how do these haploid daughter cells become diploids? Through fertilization! Daughter cells develop into sex cells, or gametes. Half of the chromosomes, or genes, come from a sperm, while the other half comes from an egg. At fertilization the number of chromosomes is re-established. Thus, the offspring fertilization are related fertilization will Now that you know how meiosis and which results from the to one obtaining have half their a closer look at how the genes of the their genotype, lets takegenes attributed from each parent. parents
dictate the characteristics of their offspring and why genes are so important!

Each parent contributes an allele, specifying an offspring's anatomical and physiological characteristics. Alleles designate specific traits and are therefore denoted as follows: Dominant Alleles (specific capital letter) and Recessive Alleles (same specific lower case letter). An alleles position on a chromosome is known as its Locus, or its designated space. There are three genotypes: Homozygous Dominant: Two dominant alleles Homozygous Recessive: Two recessive alleles Heterozygous: One dominant and one recessive allele The physical appearance that results from the allele combination is called Phenotype. Phenotypes are not just physical traits like blue eyes or small feet, phenotypes can be characteristics of people such as color blindness or other physical disorders.
When determining a trait probability, you must first determine the genotypes of the parents. Once you have the parental genotypes, you can plug it into a onetrait monohybrid cross (Punnetts Square) to determine the offspring genotype probabilities. But what if you are trying to determine more than one trait from Dihybrid parents (heterozygous in two traits)? A two-trait cross can be calculated through a Dihybrid Cross.
Click to the next slides to see my allele manipulation and Punnetts Square lab

This picture was captured from the online Dragon Genetics Lab. The purpose of the exercise was to change the bottom dragons appearance, or phenotype, to look like the phenotype of the above dragon. This required changing the dragons genotype, or alleles. As you can see, by the end of the exercise I had manipulated the bottom dragons physical appearance to look

This is an example of a monohybrid cross which uses the multiplication of a father and mothers genotypes to determine possible offspring's genotypes and phenotypes.

This picture was captured from the online Punnetts Squares Lab Project. The purpose of the exercise was to show how different genotypes produce different outcomes when crossed. In scenario 5, a heterozygous (Ll) long-winged fly crossed with another heterozygous (Ll) long-winged fly producing a 1:2:1 genotype ratio. In other words, it produced one homozygous dominant offspring, two heterozygous dominant offspring, and one homozygous recessive offspring. The phenotype ratio is 3:1; a 75% chance that two


Genes are important because they are the recipe for creating our offspring and play an important role in evolution. If our parents are strong enough to survive and reproduce, then we will inherit traits which supply us with a better chance of survival. This relates to Darwin's theory on Natural Selection. If a species genes are fraught with illness and sick with disease, they will pass this on to their offspring which can eventually extinct that species. Genes are also important because they supply diversity and uniqueness to all life forms.

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