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Wang Ping

ICES Meeting 2011-06-28 Hang Zhou

Content
Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations

National & International activities Regional activities


WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

Content
Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations

National & International activities Regional activities


WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

Why History

An important part in its knowledge system Historical Study can dig out The reasons of the emergence of standardization, including
Technological reasons

Economic reasons

Social reasons

Find out the role the standardization plays in industry

Content
Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations

National & International activities Regional activities


WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

Company standardization and the Industrial Revolution

Emergence of in-company standardization

In the mid of 18 Century, the emergence of companies allowed the Industry Revolution to boom,
Modern standardization directly related to companies from the beginning.

Mass production boosted labor division and produced streamlining in a company.


Need for capacity expansion, higher profit and quality and innovation provided companies the impetus to standardization. In-company standardization serves as the purpose of R&D and marketing strategy.

Company standardization and the Industrial Revolution

In-company standardization

began with uniform dimension and interchangeability of parts and


afterward continued with essential forms of standardization such as unification, simplification and modularization in product design, processes and manufacturing. Since the advent of the IT society, interoperability, a new form of standardization, has been proposed in ICT field. Historically technical innovation and standardization were interweaved together Military and national defense needs gave an impetus to the defense industry and industrial standardization

Content
Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations

National & International activities Regional activities


WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

Earlier activities in associations

Problems during the 2nd half of the nineteenth century

the second Industrial Revolution accelerated the industrialization Products were so sophisticated that a single company could not complete all designing and manufacturing efforts, which inevitably resulted in specialization and production division among companies. Technical problems appeared among companies, in industrial chain.

Earlier activities in associations

Early standardization across companies, e.g.:


ICE in 1818 IMechE in 1847 ASME in 1881 AIEE, the former IEEE, in 1883; and VDE in 1893

The story of Harry J. Skelton (1867~1934)

The proposal was not made by an engineer but a merchant, which means that there was a strong driven force by trade relations among the companies

Earlier activities in associations

Market competition

could contribute to disorder in technical terms, which inevitably causes both economic and social underperformance. They can not be solved only by the companies through free market competitions under the invisible hand.

Standardization in market economy

contribute to an orderly market and the efficient resource allocations, became the basis for both the technological and industrial innovations.

Standardization can be explained as real part of ecnomic invisible hand.

Content
Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations

National & International activities Regional activities


WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

National & International activities

The emergence of the national and international standardization

Around the end of the nineteenth century, international trade expanded at the development of transportation
raw materials and spare parts varied from country to country Some disputes, due to incompatibility among products in international trade, obviously brought up the needs of national and international standardizations,

ISO(1946), IEC(1906) & ITU(1865)

The establishments of ISO/IEC/ITU mostly were simultaneous with national ones which made it difficult to draw a clear time boundary between them.

Organizations Organizations

Founded Founded year year


the 1901
1917 1918

Country Country

Engineering Standard Committee (ESC), predecessor of British Standard Institute (BSI)

UK
Germany United States

2 Deutsches Institut fr Normung e.V. (DIN) 3 American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Commission Permanente de Standardisation, a 4 predecessor of Association Francaise de Normalisation (AFNOR) The Association belge de Standardisation (ABS) , a predecessor of Belgian Standards Institute (Belgisch 5 Instituut voor Normalisatie/Institut belge de normalisation)

1918

France

1919

Belgium

6 Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC)


7 Industrial Standard Committee of China

1929
1931

Japan
China

Content
Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations

National & International activities Regional activities


WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

Regional activities

Regional activities

Second half of the twentieth century, CEN founded in 1961, CENELEC in 1973 and ETSI in 1988. Other organizations such as PASC, ACCSQ of ASEAN were also founded

The standardization system formed

In the twentieth century was comprised of the private, national, regional and international standardizations. It reflected both the competition and cooperation among countries and regions in the context of economic globalization.

Organizations Organizations 1 Comit Europen de Normalisation (CEN) Comit Europen de Normalisation Electrotechnique (CENELEC) European Telecommunications Standards Institute 3 (ETSI) 2 4

Founded Founded Region Region year Year


1961 1973 1988 Europe Europe Europe

ASEAN Consultative Committee for Standards and Quality (ACCSQ)

ASEAN Countries
Pacific Area

5 Pacific Area Standards Congress (PASC) 6 Arab Industrial Development Organization (AIDMO) and Mining

Arab Countries

7 Pan American Standards Commission (COPANT)

Pan American African Regional

African Regional Organization for Standardization (ARSO)

Content
Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations

National & International activities Regional activities


WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

WTO/TBT and the Economic Globalization

An important milestone

Founded in 1994, the WTOs aim is to promote the international trade The descriptions of technical regulations, technical standards and conformance assessment, general rules and good practices for standardization were all refined in the TBT agreement. Technical regulations and standards became important rules for international trade. This strengthened the positions of the ISO/IEC/ITU both for standards development and for their roles in international affairs

Content
Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations

National & International activities Regional activities


WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

Binding relationship between the standards and technologies in ICT field

New characteristic of ICT standards

Since the advent of the 21st century, some ICT standards have become totally different from the traditional ones. the interoperability standard signified greatly to the industry in term of a strategy. standards in the ICT field have a special nature which is closely related to the technical innovation and the relevant patents. I name it as the binding relationship between standards and innovative technologies.

The externalization of network and positive feedback justified by network economics enable the ICT standards to greatly influence the industry.
These standards can be therefore called strategic standards.

New characteristic of ICT standards


Enterprises Competition Interoperability Innovation
Technology

Binding relations

Protocols
Network externality and positive feedback

4 Core elements
Standard s

Patent

Strategic Position

Market, consumer

Standardization History Project of CNIS

Four parts

Ancient, from Qin Dynasty to Qing Dynasty Late Qing Dynasty to P.R. China established P.R. China established to present Brief history in western world.

Timelines

Institutions and activities Institutional system construction Key standards, literatures Associations International cooperation and exchanges Ancient events Western activities

Standardization History Project of CNIS

The standardization pattern in China,

Historical track in China


Before the perdition of Qing Dynasty
Specific culture of Emperor and feudality

Late Qing Dynasty to P.R. China establishment


Affected by IR from western world,

P.R. China

Planning economy, affected by Soviet Russia


Market economy, entered into WTO, affected by globalization

Long history of manual industry

Early science and technology development

Chinas standardization system is similar to eastern countries and third world

Content
Why History Company standardization & the Industry Revolution Earlier activities in associations

National & International activities Regional activities


WTO/TBT ICT industry Conclusions

Conclusions

Demands for less skilled labors and labor division by the companies stimulated standardization in the early Industrial Revolution during the second half of the eighteenth century
private standardization organizations emerged due to the industrial development, specialization and product division among companies as well as disputes arose from technically incompatible products in international trade As an invisible infrastructure for the industrial economy, standards serve as a coordinator for technical issues across the industrial chain. In the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century, both national and international standardization organizations emerged due to the industrial and trade expansions across the countries.

Conclusions

The binding relationship between ICT standards and technical innovation, along with the network externalization and positive feedback in ICT field, enables the ICT technical standards to have a great effect on the industry. The WTO/TBT agreement has enhanced the position of international standards; governments have paid more attentions to standards than before. The standardization pattern in China characterizes similarity to eastern countries and third world.

FYI

Wang Ping

Deputy Chief Engineer, Senior Researcher, Deputy Executive Governor of Science and Technology Committee, China National Institute of Standardization(CNIS)
Tel Fax Cell phone Email
+86-10-5881 1446 +86-10-5881 1456 1370 122 2041 wangp@cnis.gov.cn

Wang Ping
ICES Meeting
2011-06-28, Hang Zhou No.4 Zhichun Road, Haidian District, Beijing