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JAPANESE GARDENS

RENEMTILA AO 101110017 7th SEM. B.Arch

INTRODUCTION
Japanese gardens are traditional gardens that create miniature idealized landscapes, often in a highly abstract and stylized way. Japanese gardens were developed under the influences of the Chinese gardens; gradually Japanese garden designers began to develop their own aesthetics. The garden design in Japan is strongly connected to the philosophy and religion of the country and the garden is an important part of Japanese culture. Shinto, Buddhism and Taoism were used in the creation of different garden styles in order to bring a spiritual sense to the gardens and make them places where people could spend their time in a peaceful way and meditate.

SOME TYPICAL EXAMPLES

DESIGN PRINCIPLES Nature…. .one can idealize it. even symbolize it. but one must never create something that nature itself cannot..

The most famous example of this is the use of gravel or coarse sand to represent the ocean . Mountains become hills. The views seen in nature are depicted at a more intimate scale. Representing larger natural features with smaller symbols. rivers become streams.• Reduced scale. • Symbolization.

. • Enclosure. Mountain. forest and oceans views can be carefully "framed" by grading. ornaments or tree plantings. An important theme in Japanese garden design is that the garden represents an oasis or refuge from everyday life.• Borrowed views.

etc. plants. • Contrast: that creates tension between elements • Lines: that can create both tranquility and tension • Curves: that softens the effect • Openness: that indicates interaction between all elements .BASIC DESIGN RULES • Natural: that should make the garden look as if it grew by itself • Asymmetry: that creates the impression of it being natural • Odd numbers: It supports the effect of the asymmetry • Simplicity: that follows the idea of 'less is more' • Triangle: that is the most common shape for compositions made of stones.

. and colors are less important than the invisible philosophical. in almost every Japanese garden.ABOUT JAPANESE GARDENS • A real appreciation and understanding of the traditional Japanese garden is complex and difficult. and symbolic elements. in some form. textures. • This is shown clearly when we examine the derivation and importance of the key elements present. religious. • The visual entities which may appear as a design in the Western sense of forms.

bridges (real or symbolic) • Garden plants and trees • Stepping stones. wells. stone lanterns • Ponds. waterfalls. Garden paths • Fences and walls The way in which these different elements are used in combination with each other is what brings a Japanese garden to life.ELEMENTS OF JAPANESE GARDEN • Stones • Stone water basins. .

but of stones shaped by nature only. .STONES • Stones used are not quarried by the hand of man. • According to Japanese tradition the stones are always positioned in odd numbers. • A stone lantern is a must and meant to carry innate symbolism of contrasting elements such as the yin and yang.

it creates an ambiance of serenity in a Japanese garden.WATER • Water is an important element in a Japanese garden. . • Can be symbolized through many different mediums such as raked gravel. • One of the most awe inspiring uses of water is by creating waterfalls. It symbolises purity.

flowering plants and shrubs were regarded as signs of frivolity and were replaced by evergreen trees that symbolized eternity. azaleas.GARDEN PLANT AND TREES • Japanese garden is predominately green with its use of evergreen trees. • Flowers. peonies and plum trees. bamboo. • The Japanese black pine and the Japanese maple tree are amongst the most popular trees used in the garden. cherry. The use of seasonal flowers is common. . These plantations are often seen accompanying architectural tea houses and pavilions. magnolia. Other typical plantations include the moss.

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and beech to look like old. and wiring the branches. cedar. cypress. growth pinching. holly. cherry. .BONSAI AND BONSEKI • The art of Bonsai involves the training of everyday shrubs such as pine. re-potting. large trees in miniature form. • The trees are usually less than one meter high and kept small by pruning. maple. • Bonseki is the art of developing miniature landscapes which may include smallest of rock pieces to represent mountains.

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Materials used are bamboo. wood and twigs of bamboo or tree.FENCES AND WALLS There are three types of fences: • The short fence which extends from the house into the garden • An inner fence and an outer fence. Short fences or sodegaki are screens that hide unwanted views or objects. . They are about 6 or 7 feet high.

or the man.ESSENTIAL ASPECTS • The line between garden and its surrounding landscape is not distinct. fuse the elements of nature and architecture. • Gardens incorporate natural and artificial elements and thus. the viewer should consider nature as a picture frame into which the garden.made work of art. is inserted. . • In the Japanese garden.

TYPES OF JAPANESE GARDENS Karesansui Gardens or dry gardens Chaniwa Gardens or tea gardens Tsukiyama Gardens or hill garden .

COURTYARD GARDENS TSUBO NIWA STROLLING GARDENS KAIYU SHIKIEN TSUKIYAMA .OTHERS….

TOKYO JAPANESE STROLLING GARDEN CASE STUDY .KIYOSUMI GARDENS.

• There are three big islands and a teahouse on the pond. which almost completely fills the garden.000 square metres. to give the garden its character.INTRODUCTION • Kiyosumi Gardens is a traditional Japanese stroll garden. hills and dry waterfalls were constructed with them and two sequences of them form stepping-stones across small inlets of the lake. during the Meiji Period. . allowing a pathway of many picturesque episodes around its perimeter. It was constructed along classic principles in 1878-85. • The garden covers an area of about 81. • By subtle hints in path construction and placement the visitor is led on a walk around the lake. • Water-worn boulders were brought in from all over Japan.

THE ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN • • • • • • • • STONES PONDS STEPPING STONES ROCK LANTERNS ROCK WATER BASIN ARTIFICIAL HILLS ROCKFALL TREES AND SHRUBS .

The landscape • In the large pond .SENSUI…. ISO-WATARI • When crossing the pond using one of these stepping stone pathways. The highpoint of this garden is the reflections of birds and trees that can be seen in the pond. .there are three islands and the buildings reflect tea ceremony space architecture. one can view the fish in the pond and enjoy the changing reflections of the trees and greenery of the garden.

.MEISEKI…Stones • The total number of stones used is immense and the garden can indeed be perceived as a stone garden.

FUJI-SAN…. . • The highest and largest artificial hill in the garden. The entire hill is covered with azaleas.

RYOUTEI…The Teahouse • This building heightens the beauty of the Japanese gardens. .

.STONE LANTERNS…. .

FENCES… .

Hydrangea Iris Taiwan Cherry Purple Azalea Japanese Black pine Maple Trees .MAIN PLANTS USED……. There are over 4000 trees in this garden.

Stone Water Basin Kazari-chozubachi. kept near the verandah of teahouse. .

WATER RELATED ELEMENTS… TWO STONE BRIDGE ROCKFALL STONE BRIDGE THE POND .

THE GARDEN PLAN .

.DESIGN FEATURES…. The pond in kiyosumi garden is centrally placed on site and its beauty and reflections of the garden . an important element of japanese gardens has been collected and set throughout the garden in a very skillful way. • Natural scenes are depicted in the landscape some of which are: The pond representing a larger lake The rockfall depicting a waterfall The fuji-san representing a mountain • Its location near the river and the bay attracts a large number of birds which adds to the gardens natural beauty.birds and sky can be seen from every part of the garden. • The teahouse is located such that it can be viewed from all parts of the garden along with its mesmerizing reflection in the pond. • Ponds are the centre of attractions in a Japanese garden. • Stone..

. • An important concept used in the garden is "simplicity”. • • • • It looks natural. topiaries etc. bridges. The landscape is asymmetrical Openness indicating interaction between all elements The features and elements used are very different from western landscape principles like sense of form. texture an d color. Simplicity means the achievement of maximum effect with minimum means. • The aesthetic concept of naturalness prohibits the use of elaborate designs and over refinement so compared to western gardens some general landscape elements are missing. like high lampposts. fences. refined park benches. Buildings. and pavement all utilize natural material constructed in a most imaginative and refined manner.DESIGN PRINCIPLES APPLIED….

Japan gardens Wikipedia the free encyclopedia Tokyo metropolitan park association The Japanese garden.web Japan .symbolism and aesthetics Japan fact sheet.com Flicker Travelling cam.REFERENCE • • • • • • • Japan-guide.

THANK YOU! .