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Slide 1

EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
EPRI TR-1010792
MECHANICAL SERIES
MODULE 14
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP VIBRATION
Slide 2
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
MODULE OBJ ECTIVES
- Describe types of pumps and their
typical applications
- Define/Describe:
- Pump Curves
- Best Efficiency Point
- Head vs. Resistance
- How to Use Performance Testing
Data to Monitor Pump Internal
Clearance Degradation
Slide 3
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
MODULE OBJ ECTIVES
- Present Basic Vibration Theory
- Present Simple Vibration Calculations
- Define/Describe Typical Pump Failure
Modes
- Describe Standard Vibration
Monitoring, Analysis, and Diagnostics
Slide 4
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
SINGLE VOLUTE PUMP
Slide 5
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
DOUBLE VOLUTE PUMP
Slide 6
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
DIFFUSER PUMP
Slide 7
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
IMPELLER CONFIGURATIONS
Enclosed
Semi-Enclosed Open
Slide 8
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
SINGLE SUCTION IMPELLER
I
m
p
e
l
l
e
r

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
Wear Ring Hub
Suction Vane Edge
Shroud
Discharge Vane
Edge or Tip
E
y
e

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
Suction Eye
Slide 9
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
DOUBLE SUCTION IMPELLER
I
m
p
e
l
l
e
r

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
E
y
e

D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
Wear Ring Hub
Suction Eye
Suction Vane Edge
Shroud
Discharge Vane
Edge or Tip
Slide 10
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PUMP AND HEAD TERMINOLOGY
Head - used as a measure of energy and has the units of feet.

Friction head (h
f
) - the energy required to overcome resistance
to flow in the pipe, fittings, valves, entrances and exits.

Velocity head (h
v
) - the energy of a fluid as a result of its
kinetic energy.

Pressure head (h
p
) - the pressure of the fluid being pumped.

Slide 11
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PUMP AND HEAD TERMINOLOGY
Static suction head (h
s
) - the vertical distance in feet above the
centerline of the pump inlet to the free level of the fluid source. If
the free level of the fluid source is below the pump inlet, h
s
will be
negative and is referred to as static suction lift.

Static discharge head (h
d
) - the vertical distance in feet above the
pump centerline to the free level of the discharge tank.

Net suction head (H
s
) - the total energy of the fluid entering the
pump inlet. It includes the static suction head (h
s
), plus the
pressure head (if any) in the suction tank (h
p
), plus the suction
velocity head (h
v
), minus the friction head (h
f
) in the suction piping.
Slide 12
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
NET SUCTION HEAD
Net suction head (H
s
) - the total energy of the fluid entering the
pump inlet. It includes the static suction head (h
s
), plus the
pressure head (if any) in the suction tank (h
p
), plus the suction
velocity head (h
v
), minus the friction head (h
f
) in the suction piping.
p, h
p

h
s

h
f

h
v

Slide 13
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PUMP AND HEAD TERMINOLOGY
Net discharge head (H
d
) - the total energy of the fluid leaving the
pump. It includes the static discharge head (h
d
), plus the discharge
velocity head (h
v
), plus the friction head in the discharge piping
(h
v
), plus the pressure head (if any) in the discharge tank (h
p
).
p, h
p

h
d

h
f

h
v

Slide 14
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PUMP AND HEAD TERMINOLOGY
Total dynamic head (H) - the net discharge head minus
the net suction head. The total amount of energy added
to the fluid by the pump.

H = H
d
- H
s
Slide 15
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PUMP AND HEAD TERMINOLOGY
Net positive suction head required (NPSH
R
) - the minimum fluid
energy required at the inlet to the pump for satisfactory operation.

Net positive suction head available (NPSH
A
) - the fluid energy at
the inlet to the pump above the fluid’s vapor pressure.
Cavitation - the vaporization of the
fluid within the casing or suction line.
Slide 16
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
INTEGRATED CURVE
4000
H
E
A
D

(
f
t
)
3500
3000
2000
2500
FLOW (gpm)
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Eff. %
60
40
20
0
600
400
200
0
NPSH
R
(ft)
BHP
NPSH
R
Head
EFF %
BHP @ 1.0 Specific Gravity
Typical Auxiliary Feedwater Pump Curves
Slide 17
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
ESTIMATING PUMP INTERNAL
CLEARANCE DEGRADATION
1. Using Performance Test Data to Calculate % Head Loss at the
Operating Conditions
2. Using a Balance Line DP Correlation to I nternal Clearance Status
3. Performing a Static Rotor Lift Check and Measuring Clearances as
Close as Possible to the Wear Rings
Slide 18
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION THEORY
m
a
EF
ma F =
¿
Newton’s Second Law = Dynamic Equation of Motion
Slide 19
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM
k
c
m
x(t)
F(t)
kx
cx
F(t)
m mx 
x m x c kx t F F
  
= ÷ ÷ =
¿
) (
¬
¬
) (t F kx x c x m = + +
  
Slide 20
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
FREE VIBRATIONS
Time
Amplitude
e
n
t ֍e
sin( ) e ¢
d
t +
) sin( ) ( ¢ e
çe
+ =
÷
t Ae t x
d
t
c
n
Slide 21
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
FREE VIBRATIONS
m
k
n
= e
2
1 ç e e ÷ =
n d
km
c
c
c
cr
2
= = ç
Natural Frequency of
Undamped System in rad/sec
Damping Factor
Natural Frequency of Damped
System in rad/sec
Period of Oscillations in sec
f = Frequency in Hz
f
T
d
1 2
= =
e
t
Slide 22
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
APPLICATION
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
e
d
t
e
d
t
0
e
d
t
1
e
d
t
2
e
d
t
3
e
d
t
4
p i
i
x
x
p
+
~ ln
2
1
t
ç
i p i
d
t t
p
÷
=
+
t
e
2
2
1 ç
e
e
÷
=
d
n
2
n
m k e =
Slide 23
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
FORCED VIBRATIONS
) cos( ) ( ¢ e ÷ = t X t x
) ( ) sin( ) ( t x t X
dt
dx
t x e ¢ e e = ÷ ÷ = =

) ( ) cos( ) (
2 2
t x t X
dt
x d
t x e ¢ e e ÷ = ÷ ÷ = =

 
Slide 24
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
FORCED VIBRATIONS
f
T
1 2
= =
e
t
) cos( ) ( ¢ e ÷ = t X t x
0
RX X =
k
F
X
0
0
=
2 2 2
) 2 ( ) 1 (
1
) (
r r
r R
ç + ÷
=
2
1
1
2
tan ) (
r
r
r
÷
=
÷
ç
¢
n
r
e
e
= with
Time t
x(t)
X
Slide 25
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
FORCED VIBRATIONS
ç = 0

ç = 0 1 ,

ç = 0 2 ,

ç = 0 3 ,
ç = 0 6 ,
ç = 1
0 1.0 2.0
0.1
1.0
10.
0
100.
0
R
r
Dynamic amplification factor
R r ( )
as a function of
ç
(Logarithmic scale)
Slide 26
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
FORCED VIBRATIONS
¢( ) r
ç = 0
ç = 0 01 ,
ç = 0 1 ,
ç = 0 2 ,

ç = 0 6 ,
ç = 1
0.0 1.0 2.0
0
40
80
120
160
r
180
Phase angle
¢( ) r
as a function of
ç
Slide 27
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Following is a presentation of practical methods
for the determination of system dynamic characteristics
from vibration plots. We are interested in calculating:

• Damping factors
• Natural Frequencies
• Critical speeds

Slide 28
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
R
max
R
max
2

r
1

r
2
0. 1. 2. 3.
r
R
Ar
÷3dB
n
r
e
e
ç
A
= A =
2
1
2
1
Plot of Pump Bearing Vibration Amplitude
as a Function of Excitation Frequency
e e =
n
For r = 1
Critical Speed f N
cr
60 =
, RPM
t
e
2
n
f =
, Hz
, rad/sec
Slide 29
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
ç
X
3
X
2
X
1
N
1
N
2
N
3
N rpm
X
Vibration Amplitudes Provide an Easy and Fairly Accurate
Method of Determining Critical Speeds from Bode Plots
n
e
Damping Factor
Natural Frequency
t
e
2
n
f =
, rad/sec
, Hz
Critical Speed
f N
cr
60 =
, RPM
Slide 30
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
ç
Using Phase Angle Measurements
(Not Very Accurate due to Uncertainties of
Angle Measurements)
n
e
Damping Factor
Natural Frequency
¢( ) r
¢
2
¢
1
N
1
N
2
0.
0
40
80
120
160
N rpm
180
t
e
2
n
f =
, rad/sec
, Hz
Critical Speed
f N
cr
60 =
, RPM
Slide 31
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
SIMPLE ROTOR HAVING 2 CRITICAL SPEEDS
DUE TO DISSIMILAR SUPPORT STIFFNESS

P
O
G
x
y
z

¢

et
O
P
G
e
u
y
x
x
y
e
1
e
2
M
K
x
nx
= e
M
K
y
ny
= e
nx
x
r
e
e
=
ny
y
r
e
e
=
Slide 32
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
SIMPLE ROTOR

X
e
,
Y
e
¢ = ° 0 ¢ = ° 180
e
¢ = ° 360

e

e
r
x
= 1
r
y
= 1 r r
x y
,
0.
1.
Slide 33
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PUMP FAILURE MODES
Loading Response
Static forces and moments on the casing:
- Impeller radial thrust (primary static load of
the rotor)
- Weight of the rotating assembly
- Static loading varying with pump flow rate
- Static bearing and seal forces
- Static shaft deflection
- Rotor axial position movement
Dynamic forces and moments fixed on the
rotor:
- Impeller hydraulic unbalance (primary
dynamic load of the rotor)
- Rotor mechanical unbalance (secondary
dynamic load of the rotor)
- Dynamic bearing and seal forces
expressed as vibrations
Dynamic instability mechanisms:
- Pump bearing whirl
- Rubs
- Impeller vane pass
- Rotor eccentricity
Multiples and sub-multiples of running
speed from analysis:
- Sub-synchronous frequencies
- Impact
- Multiples of running speed
Pump Loading and Associated Response
Slide 34
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PUMP FAILURE MODES
Loading Response
Static:
- Nozzle loads
- Foot loads
Static structural response is not currently
measured
Dynamic:
- Seismic nozzle loading
- Seismic foot loading
Dynamic structural response:
- Seismic response not recorded
- Natural frequencies usually
accounted for
- Running speed components
- Sub-harmonics analyzed
Structural Loading and Associated Response
Slide 35
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
PUMP FAILURE MODES
Loading Response
- Bearing and seal static and dynamic
loading
- Flow induced loading
Mostly pressure, temperature and flow
measurements and performance trending
Operational Loading and Associated Response
Slide 36
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
Vibration Measurements
Slide 37
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
Vibration Measurements
Shaft
Bearing
Casing
Motor
Vertical
Accelerometer
Axial
Accelerometer
Slide 38
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
Vibration Sensors
Moving Object:
(Shaft)
Fixed Object
(Bearing)
Displacement
Probe
Slide 39
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
Vibration Sensors
Transducer Case
Vibrating Mass
Piezoelectric Element
(Spring)
Transducer Mount
Transducer
Wiring
Integrated
Electronics
Magnetic Base
Support Element
Piezoelectric Accelerometer
Transducer Case
Coil
Damper (oil)
Vibrating Mass
Stiffness Element
(Spring)
Permanent Magnet
Transducer Mount
Transducer Wiring
Seismic Velocity Transducer
Slide 40
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
Vibration Acceptance Criteria
Recommended Limits for Overall Casing Velocity
Peak Velocity Acceptance Class
Less than 0.15 ips (3.8 mm/sec) Acceptable
0.15 to 0.25 ips (3.8 – 6.3 mm/sec) Tolerable
0.25 to 0.4 ips (6.3 – 10 mm/sec)
May be tolerable for moderate periods of
time. Monitor closely to warn of changes
0.4 to 0.6 ips (10 – 15 mm/sec)
Impending failure; watch closely for changes
and be prepared to shut down for repairs
Above 0.6 ips (15 mm/sec) Danger of immediate failure
Slide 41
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
Vibration Acceptance Criteria
Recommended Limits for Shaft Vibration
- API and AGMA specify that, for the purpose of acceptance, maximum shaft
amplitude peak-to-peak expressed in mils shall not exceed
RPM
000 , 12
or 2 mils
whichever is less.
- In this criterion, shaft motion includes runout, which can be no more than
25% of the allowable displacement.
- This guideline is established for new machinery; operating machinery can
tolerate higher levels.
- Consult OEM
Slide 42
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
I nterpretation of Vibration Spectra
Cause Frequency Amplitude Phase Notes
Unbalance 1 x RPM Proportional to
unbalance Radial
- steady
1 Reference
mark - steady
Most common cause of vibration, no phase
change
Misalign-
ment
(1, 2, 3, …) x
RPM
Axial – high 1, 2 or 3
reference
marks
Second most common cause of vibration.
Axial amplitude may be twice the vertical or
horizontal.
Eccentricity 1 x RPM Varies 0 or 180
o
between
Horizontal
and Vertical
Balancing may reduce vibration in one
direction but increase it in the other
Bent shaft (1 to 2) x
RPM
Axial - high 180
o
out of
phase axially
Same radial phase on both bearings Orbit
and phase are good parameters to monitor
Slide 43
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
I nterpretation of Vibration Spectra
Cause Frequency Amplitude Phase Notes
Thermal
bow
1 x RPM Varies 1 Reference
mark - steady
Increasing vibration during load variations
and startup from a cold condition
Looseness (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5,
3, …) x RPM
Proportional to
load
2 reference
marks,
slightly
erratic
Frequently coupled with misalignment
Strobe may help. Amplitude depends on
load
Soft foot 1 to 2 x RPM Proportional to
load
Check mountings for variations in amplitude
Electrical 1 x RPM or 1
to 2 x line
frequency
Large Erratic When power is turned off vibrations
disappears instantly
Sleeve
bearings
wear and
clearance
(1, 2, 3, 4, …)
x RPM
May be higher in
Vertical than
Horizontal
Erratic Compare shaft to bearing displacement
readings. Oil analysis best monitor for wear
Oil whip .5 x RPM Radial –
unsteady,
excessive
Erratic Frequency is near one-half running speed
(machine speed is nearly 2x critical speed)
Oil temperature is a good indicator
Oil whirl (.42 to .48) x
RPM
Radial –
unsteady,
sometimes severe
Erratic Caused by unloading of bearing. Tangential
destabilizing force due to lube film in the
direction of rotation adds energy to vibration
Slide 44
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
I nterpretation of Vibration Spectra
Cause Frequency Amplitude Phase Notes
Anti-friction
bearings
BPFI, BPFO,
BSF, FTF and
Harmonics
Radial - low Erratic Use velocity, acceleration or spike energy
Rubbing (0-0.5)x, 1x,
and higher
harmonics
Erratic Erratic Similar to impact, may excite many system
frequencies
Gears GMF=Z x
RPM
Radial - low Erratic Use velocity or acceleration. Tooth wear is
better indicated by side-bands around GMF
and excitation of tooth natural frequency.
Higher tooth load will increase amplitude at
GMF. Backlash is characterized by
decreasing amplitude at GMF when load is
increased. Gear misalignment shows with
higher 2x and 3x GMF. A cracked or broken
tooth is best seen on the time signal. A
hunting tooth problem shows at very low
frequencies
Slide 45
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
BASIC VIBRATION DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES
I nterpretation of Vibration Spectra
Cause Frequency Amplitude Phase Notes
Foundation Unsteady Erratic Unstable
reference
Strobe may help
Resonance System
specific
High Erratic Increased levels at resonant frequency. Often
appears on old machines pedestals
Cracks 1x, 2x RPM, Variable during
transients. Drop
in higher
harmonics
Phase shift Increased levels at resonant frequency
Phase is a good indicator. 2x RPM
excitation of critical speed during coast
down.
Hydraulic
Forces
Vane Pass =
Z x RPM and
harmonics
High radial and
axial
NA Use velocity or acceleration. Due to uneven
internal gap between rotating vanes and
diffuser. May excite natural frequencies.
Flow obstructions are common causes.
Cavitation Random high
frequency +
Vane Pass
High radial and
axial
NA Due mainly to insufficient suction pressure
and the presence of vapor and air in the
liquid.
Slide 46
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
VIBRATION SIGNALS EXAMPLES
Slide 47
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
Unbalance
Slide 48
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
Misalignment
Slide 49
EPRI PSE
Mechanical, Module 14-Centrifugal Pump Vibration
Vane Pass
5x 1x