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Steam Generator Upgrades & Maintenance

Presented by: David King, Manager Steam Generation Equipment Engineering APP Site Visit October 30 – November 4, 2006

Topics of Discussion
• Steam Generator Upgrades & Maintenance
– – – – – – – – – – – Steam flow balancing Air heater baskets & seals Component replacement upgrades (material & design) Online detonation cleaning Water Cannons/HydroJets Acoustic leak detection Weld overlay & coatings Balanced draft conversion on FGD units Nose installation on 800 MW units Boiler tube failure program 4th generation low NOx burners

Topics of Discussion • Fuel Considerations – Matching steam generator design with fuel characteristics – Benefits of washing coal – Coal additive injection 3 .

and a reduction in the temperature on the elements operating excessively hot. – TubMod analysis was performed to improve the temperature profile and extend the life of the superheater tubing. The result is an evening out of the tube metal temperature across the superheater elements. caused by tube circuit design and gas temperature/flow imbalances. 4 .Steam Flow Balancing • Aptech TubMod Analysis at Glen Lyn Unit 6 – The unit experienced high temperature variations across the boiler. temperature imbalances can be corrected by redistributing the steam flow. – Through the TubMod process.

Steam Flow Balancing 5 .

Air Heater Baskets • Modifications are necessary to accommodate high sulfur fuel switch programs and SCR retrofits. – 3 layers reduced to 2 to envelope the ABS formation temperature within an area that can be cleaned with conventional sootblowing. – Modifications to address SCR retrofits: • Redesign of the heat transfer surface arrangement. and off-line washing. 6 . – Considerations to address high sulfur applications: • Increased attention to exit gas temperatures being maintained above the acid dew point. – The use of closed channel elements to better contain and focus the cleaning media to the areas of likely deposition. – The utilization of multimedia blowers to facilitate both conventional on-line cleaning.

at lower pressures Lower risk of element damage from cleaning 7 . Air Preheater Company Open Channel Surface Closed Channel Surface Cleaning Media Discharge Cleaning Media Inlet • • • • Cleaning energy dissipates rapidly Cleaning media diverted around deposits Requires higher pressure for effective cleaning Higher risk of element damage from cleaning • • • • Each channel acts like a closed pipe Cleaning energy cannot divert around deposits Deposits are readily removed.Air Heater Baskets ALSTOM Power Inc.

– The air heater leakage results in excess FD and ID fan motor amps. 8 . with the recognizance that the fan motors are one of the largest auxiliary power consumers in the plant. – Welsh Unit 3 saw a 30% reduction in ID fan amps after the installation of the Paragon Airheater Technologies radial and circumferential/bypass seals. – Reducing air heater leakage will show immediate heat rate benefits.Air Heater Seals • Paragon air heater seal installation at Welsh Unit 3 – Air heater leakage across air heater radial seals can average as much as 15 to 20%.

Air Heater Seals – The Paragon DuraMax radial seals incorporate unique. – The Paragon DuraFlex high-performance circumferential and bypass seals use a patented revolutionary interlocking design which reduces the air gaps. 9 . selfadjusting bellows that ensure positive contact with the sealing surfaces.

in-kind material selection with croloy and stainless steel material transitions. • Stainless Steel Weld Overlay for Shielding – Use SS weld overlay on new boiler tube components in lieu of tube shields at sootblower locations. • Expands the types of coal a particular unit can burn.Component Upgrades • Total Platen Replacement Projects – Upgrade tube material to all stainless steel vs. 10 . but minimal future O&M costs to maintain. • AEP has some spiral weld overlay tubing in sootblower lanes with 10 years of service and no reported issues. • Improves the boiler’s slag shedding capability. • Spiral weld overlay has higher upfront cost.

Component Upgrades • New Alignment and Attachment Designs 11 .

Middle Economizer Bundle North Wall Lower Economizer Bundle Ash Piles Extend Beyond Hangers Problem: • Excessive Ash Piles and Bridging Cause Delta P and Heat Transfer Impact • Spatial Constraints Prevent Installation of Conventional Sootblowers 12 .Online Detonation Cleaning • Pratt & Whitney SHOCKSystem Economizer Cleaning at Rockport Unit 2 – Provides non-line-of-sight cleaning of tube bundles to remove bridging and platenization.

Online Detonation Cleaning BEFORE AFTER SHOCK Blasts SHOCK Blasts Before SHOCKSystem™ Ash Pile Accumulation Over Nine Months of Continuous Boiler Operation After SHOCKSystem™ First Two Ash Piles Removed After Two 13 Days of SHOCKSystem™ Operation .

Online Detonation Cleaning Five Combustor Economizer Cleaner at Rockport Unit 2 14 .

Online Detonation Cleaning Rockport Unit 2 Economizer Cleaning Installation Five Days of Intensive SHOCKSystem™ Operation Delta T Across Economizer Increased By 15°F Effective Heat Transfer Temperature of Gas to Airheater Increased By 10% Decreased By 30°F Temperature of Gas from Airheater Decreased By 15°F 240.000 Lbs 15 Weight of Ash Removed .

– Displaces conventional wall blowers or water lances as the best available technology for furnace cleaning. Water Cannon HydroJet 16 . – Uses cross-furnace cleaning where a controlled water jet is transmitted across the firebox to the opposite or adjacent walls.Water Cannons/HydroJets • Provides “intelligent” real-time cleaning of furnaces using water cleaning hardware and a closed-loop control system that utilizes sensors and software.

04 lb/MMBTU Decreased by 25 BTU/kwh S02 to S03 Conversion Reduction of 8-10% 17 .Water Cannons/HydroJets Gavin Unit 2 Water Cannon Performance Testing Furnace Exit Gas Temperature Decreased by 112°F NOx Emissions Heat Rate Reduction of 0.

furnace penetration seal air. – Information is processed.Acoustic Leak Detection • Acoustic leak detection system at Gavin Unit 1 & 2 – Consists of 30 remote acoustic sensors attached to membrane of exterior furnace walls and penthouse roof. – Ethernet daisy-chain provides communication to control room were central computer is located. • Provides better indication of tube leak than any other method. etc. 18 . including older style acoustic leak systems and water loss tests. – Alarms are established for each sensor and refined as leaks are detected. filters applied (sootblowers.) and information is displayed on operator PC screen. • Acceptance and reliance on acoustic leak detection has reduced forced outage durations from weeks to days.

19 . Leak detection screen and alarm indication threshold at 92 dB.Acoustic Leak Detection Gavin sensor layout along with HP heater screen which also have 1 acoustic leak detector per heater.

• To combat high levels of corrosion. which has necessitated furnace corrosion protection. AEP currently reviewing various furnace protections including: – Weld overlay – Metal spray coatings – Ceramic coatings • The industry is working to optimize the choice of overlay and metal spray materials.Weld Overlay & Coatings • Efforts to minimize NOx production have led to increases in furnace waterwall wastage. • The overlay and metal spray processes have been automated by the vendors. 20 . • Computer Modeling and/or thickness surveys are utilized to identify the areas needing protection.

– Reduces the likelihood of fugitive emissions occurrences due to casing leaks. – Improves the work environment of the boiler house. • Utilizes multi-speed motors on existing FD fans and the application of variable pitch axial ID fans. – FD fan controls volume flow while ID fan maintains furnace pressure. – Provides the additional head to overcome the added resistance of the FGD. 21 . – Optimizes unit efficiency over the load range and provides improved unit control. • Requires upgrading steam generators to accommodate the extremes of balanced draft operation. thus increasing productivity and equipment longevity.Balanced Draft Conversion • Converting positive pressure units to balanced draft operation while retrofitting FGD’s.

• Reduces the peak temperatures leaving the furnace. – Serves to improve mixing and heat absorption in the furnace. 22 .Furnace Nose Installation • Furnace nose installation on AEP’s 800 MW units completed in conjunction with FGD retrofit. thereby reducing the slagging potential with higher sulfur coals. • Installed a 10 foot long nose in a 39’ x 80’ furnace. – Spreads the flue gas flow out over the leading edge surface of the pendants.

07% Reduced by 0.05% Reduced from 200 fps to 56 fps 23 .12% Reduced by 0.Furnace Nose Installation Mitchell Unit 1&2 CFD Modeling Expected Performance Furnace Exit Gas Temperature Superheater Heat Absorption Boiler Efficiency Coal Consumption Loss on Ignition Aperture Floor Velocity Decreased by 17°F Increased by 15% Improved by 0.

Boiler Tube Failure Program • Provides centralized boiler tube failure data and metallurgical analysis results. Based on visual review. the failure samples may be forwarded to AEP’s internal lab for further metallurgical and root cause analysis. • All tube failures are routed through corporate engineering. 24 . – Centralized boiler tube failure tracking helps to alert other like series units of potential related tube failure mechanisms or issues. – Makes for easy access to information/data for capital replacement justification purposes or O&M repairs.

4th Gen Low NOx Burners • Existing Low NOx Burners – 25 hot tips/burner fires per year – NOx emissions 0.500.48 lb/MMBTU – Potential urea cost reduction of $2.75 lb/MMBTU – Projected 135 hot tips/year with future coal (high sulfur and slagging) • New Low NOx Burners – 0 hot tips to date – NOx emissions 0.000/year @ $350/dry ton urea (365 day ozone control) 25 .

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