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Module 9

ORGAN SYSTEM PATHWAYS

The Ten Major Organ Systems


Body covering or integument protection from the environment Skeletal system support (and protection) of the body Muscular system movement and locomotion Digestive system reception and preparation of food Circulatory system transport of materials Respiratory system exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

The Ten Major Organ Systems


Excretory system disposal of organic wastes and excess fluid Endocrine glands or system regulation of internal processes and adjustments to exterior environment Nervous System (and sense organs) regulation of internal processes and adjustments to exterior environment. Reproductive system production of new individuals.

Integumentary System

Include the skin and its modifications or derivatives. Integument It serve mainly for protection and covering Other functions include: sensation, body temperature regulation, respiration, excretion, sensation, and it also synthesize Vitamin D The first line of defense against pathogens.

Integumentary System

It is composed of the outer, thinner layer called the epidermis, and the inner thicker layer called the dermis. Beneath the two major layers is the hypodermis or subcutaneous layer, made up chiefly of adipose tissue or fat cells.

The Epidermis

The epidermis has an outer layer of dead cells (stratum corneum), and an inner layer of epithelial and dividing cells (statum germinativum). Melanocytes are cells which produce the pigment cells called melanin. It has no blood vessels and nerves.

The Dermis

Consist of a delicate layer of fine fibers supporting the epidermis and reticular layer, which consists of a dense network of coarse and elastic fibers. It also consist of hair follicle, sebaceous and sweat glands, blood vessels, and nerve endings.

Cross section of the skin

SKELETAL SYSTEM

The Skeletal System

The main framework of the body. Protects delicate organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. Provide attachments for muscles, hence aid in bodily movements. Manufacture blood cells. Store mineral salts, calcium, and phosphate.

Skeletal System

1. 2.

Skeleton or bones Cartilage Exoskeleton Endoskeleton Two main divisions: Axial Appendicular

The Axial Skeleton


Skull or cranium Vertebral column which is divided into: cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (lower back), sacrum (fused bones), and caudal (tail vertebrae or coccyx in man). Ribs: 12 pairs include 7 true ribs, 3 false ribs, and 2 floating ribs. Sternum or breastbone Mandible Thoracic basket or thoracic cage

The thoracic basket

The Appendicular Skeleton

The bones of the pectoral girdle: scapulae or shoulder blades and the clavicle or collar bones. The bones of the upper limbs/forelimbs: humerus (upper arm bone), radius and ulna (lower arm bones), carpals (wrist bones), metacarpals (palm bones), and phalanges or bones of the digits or fingers.

The Appendicular Skeleton

The bones of the pelvic girdle: ilium, ischium, and pubis. The bones of the hindlimbs or lower appendages include: femur (thigh bone), tibia and fibula (shank or leg bones), tarsals (ankle bones), metatarsals (feet or sole bones), and phalanges (toe bones).

Skeletal System

Joints Freely movable (diarthroses) joints such as hinge joints and ball-and-socket joints. Slightly movable (amphiarthroses) joints such as the pubic symphysis. Immovable ( synarthroses) joints such as joints in the roof of the skull. Tendons connect muscles with bones Ligaments connect bone to another bone.

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Main Function: movement and locomotion. Skeletal muscles attached to bones Points of attachments: origin and insertion Belly Functions or actions of muscles: responsible for the different movements produced. Action of muscles: work together (synergism) or work against each other (antagonism)

Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement they contract or shorten and are the machine of the body

Characteristics of Muscles

Muscle cells are elongated (muscle cell = muscle fiber) Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments

All muscles share some terminology


Prefix myo refers to muscle Prefix mys refers to muscle Prefix sarco refers to flesh

Three basic muscle types are found in the body

Skeletal muscle

Cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle

Skeletal Muscle Characteristics


Most are attached by tendons to bones Cells are multinucleate Striated have visible banding Voluntary subject to conscious control Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue = great force, but tires easily

Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle

Endomysium around single muscle fiber


Perimysium around a fascicle (bundle) of fibers

Epimysium covers the entire skeletal muscle


Fascia on the outside of the epimysium

Epimysium blends into a connective tissue attachment


Tendon cord-like structure


Aponeuroses sheet-like structure

Sites of muscle attachment


Bones

Cartilages
Connective tissue coverings

Skeletal Muscle Attachments

Epimysium blends into a connective tissue attachment

Tendon cord-like structure

Aponeuroses sheet-like structure

Sites of muscle attachment

Bones
Cartilages

Connective tissue coverings

Has no striations Spindle-shaped cells Single nucleus

Involuntary no conscious control


Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs Slow, sustained and tireless

Structure of a muscle fiber


Sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, and nuclei. Myofibrils individual contractile units Fine structures of the myofibrils: light bands (I bands), and dark bands (A bands) Sarcomere the functional unit of a myofibril. Myofilaments much smaller parallel units of the myofibril. Two kinds of myofilaments: actin and myosin.

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

1.
2. 3. 4.

Complex series of organs and glands that processes food to make them simple and absorbable by our cells. Involves processes such as: Ingestion Mastication Digestion Absorption

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
5. Circulation 6. Assimilation 7. Oxidation 8. Excretion 9. Egestion

Components of the Digestive System


1.

2.
3.

Accessory parts Digestive glands Digestive tube or alimentary canal

The Accessory Parts of Digestive System


1. 2. 3.

Lips Teeth Tongue

The Digestive Tube


1. Mouth

the anterior opening of the digestive tube for the entrance of food.

2. Oral Cavity the space internal to the mouth where mastication or grinding of food takes place.

The Digestive Tube


3. Pharynx the most posterior portion of the oral cavity where it serves a dual function: for passage of air into the glottis, and for the passage of food into the esophagus. 4. Esophagus the tube which connects the pharynx with the stomach. It serves for the passage of food with a peristaltic movement.

Diagrammatic illustration of motor events of swallowing reflex.

The Digestive Tube


4. Stomach
-

J-shaped hollow muscular organ. Highly acidic Partial digestion takes place. Parts include: fundus, cardiac end, pyloric end, rugae, greater curvature, lesser curvature

The Digestive Tube


-

Chyme Churning Pyloric and esophageal sphincter Pepsin digests protein Gastric acid, mostly HCl

The Digestive Tube


5. Small intestines divided into 3 regions: duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum.

The Digestive Tube


5. Small intestine it is about 6 meters

long. - villi, lined with columnar epithelium - final digestion and absorption of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates takes place - substances secreted into and by the small intestines include bile, pancreatic juice, intestinal juice which contain enzymes.

The Digestive Tube


6. Large intestine portion which extends from the ileum to the anus. - also called colon. - it is divided into ascending colon, transverse, and descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. - receives approximately 10 liters of water per
day. 1.5 liters is from food and 8.5 liters is from secretions into the gut. 95% of this water is reabsorbed.

The Digestive Tube

The Digestive Tube


7. Anus the posterior opening of the digestive tube. - it serves for the exit of waste products of digestion.

The Digestive Glands


1. Salivary Glands

parotid glands produce a serous, watery secretion submaxillary (mandibular) glands produce a mixed serous and mucous secretion sublingual glands secrete a saliva that is predominantly mucous in character

The Digestive Glands


2. Liver - the largest gland in the human body. - It produces bile, a substance which emulsifies fats. - plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, and detoxification.

The Digestive Glands

The liver

The Digestive Glands


3. Pancreas
-

It is both exocrine (secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes) and endocrine (producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin). It also produces digestive enzymes that pass into the small intestine. These enzymes help in the further breakdown of the carbohydrates, protein, and fat in the chyme.

The Digestive Glands


4. Gastric glands

- Branched tubular glands lying in the mucosa of the fundus and body of the stomach; such glands contain parietal cells that secrete hydrochloric acid, zymogen cells that produce pepsin, and mucous cells.

The Digestive glands


5. Intestinal glands
-secrete various enzymes, including sucrase and maltase, along with endopeptidases and exopeptidases

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Enzymes involved in Digestion


polysaccharides maltose glucose proteins peptides amino acids fats fatty acids and glycerol

Respiratory System

Respiratory system

The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body This is done through breathing. Breathing involves the mechanical act of inhalation and exhalation.

Parts of the Respiratory System:


A. Upper respiratory tract 1. Nose 2. Nasal cavity 3. Pharynx a. nasopharynx b. oropharynx 4. Larynx or voice box, which contains the vocal cords

Parts of the Respiratory System


B. Lower Respiratory tract 1. Trachea or windpipe - filters the air we
breathe and branches into the bronchi.

2. Bronchi - two air tubes that branch off of


the trachea and carry air directly into the lungs.

3. Bronchioles

Parts of the Respiratory System


C. Lungs
-

are the main organs of the respiratory system. Alveoli are the millions of tiny compartments of the lungs where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Pleural cavity Pleura

Parts of the Respiratory System


Diaphragm - a dome-shaped muscle at the bottom of the lungs - main muscle used in breathing

Pathway of Air from Environment to the Lungs:

Air enters the nostrils passes through the nasopharynx, to the oral pharynx through the glottis, then the larynx, into the trachea into the right and left bronchi, which branches and rebranches into bronchioles, each of which terminates in a cluster of alveoli

Frequently Asked Questions


Why Do I Yawn? When you are sleepy or drowsy the lungs do not take enough oxygen from the air. This causes a shortage of oxygen in our bodies. The brain senses this shortage of oxygen and sends a message that causes you to take a deep long breath---a YAWN.

Frequently Asked Questions


Why Do I Sneeze? Sneezing is like a cough in the upper breathing passages. It is the body's way of removing an irritant from the sensitive mucous membranes of the nose. Many things can irritate the mucous membranes. Dust, pollen, pepper or even a cold blast of air are just some of the many things that may cause you to sneeze.

Frequently Asked Questions


What Causes Hiccups? Hiccups are the sudden movements of the diaphragm. It is involuntary --- you have no control over hiccups, as you well know. There are many causes of hiccups. The diaphragm may get irritated, you may have eaten to fast, or maybe some substance in the blood could even have brought on the hiccups.

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

Functions of the Circulatory System

moves nutrients, gases, and wastes to and from cells, helps fight diseases and helps stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis

Components of the Circulatory System


A. The Blood B. The Blood Vessels C. The Heart

The Heart

Muscular organ in all vertebrates responsible for pumping blood through the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions The term cardiac (as in cardiology) means "related to the heart" and comes from the Greek , kardia, for "heart."

The Heart

The heart of a vertebrate is composed of cardiac muscle, an involuntary muscle tissue which is found only within this organ. The average human heart beating at 72 BPM, will beat approximately 2.5 billion times during a lifetime spanning 66 years.

The Structure of the Heart

The Blood

a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cellssuch as nutrients and oxygenand transports waste products away from those same cells.
composed of blood cells suspended in a liquid called blood plasma.

The Blood

Plasma comprises 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (90% by volume) contains dissolved proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), platelets and blood cells themselves

The Blood
Blood cells mainly red blood cells (erythrocytes) and white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes) .

The Blood

The Blood Vessels

transport blood throughout the body. Capillaries the microscopic vessels which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues, Arteries, carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. Veins, carry oxygen-poor blood towards the heart

Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The coronary circulatory system provides a blood supply to the heart. As it provides oxygenated blood to the heart, it is by definition a part of the systemic circulatory system.

Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygendepleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. De-oxygenated blood enters the right atrium of the heart and flows into the right ventricle where it is pumped through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs. Pulmonary veins return the now oxygen-rich blood to the heart, where it enters the left atrium before flowing into the left ventricle. From the left ventricle the oxygen-rich blood is pumped out via the aorta, and on to the rest of the body.

Amazing Fact

If you took all of the blood vessels out of an average child, and laid them out in one line, the line would be over 60,000 miles long! An adult's vessels would be closer to 100,000 miles long!