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APPAREL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Quality Guru Dr. Genichi Taguchi Presented byYashasvi Shailly(27), Uttam Kumar(25), Madan Mohan (10)

Biography

Genichi Taguchi (January 1, 1924 – June 2, 2012), of Tokamachi, Japan was an engineer and statistician. The executive director of the American Supplier Institute, the director of the Japan Industrial Technology Institute, and an honorary professor at Nanjing Institute of Technology in China. Companies such as Toyota, Ford, Boeing and Xerox have adopted his methods. Developed a methodology to improve quality and reduce costs, which are referred to as the Taguchi Methods.

Books Authored    Experimental Design and Life Test Analysis Design Of Experiments for Engineers. Second Edition. 1962 . 1960 Design of Experiments.

Rockwell Medal of the International Technology Institute Honorary member of the Japanese Society of Quality Control and of the American Society for Quality Shewhart Medal of the American Society for Quality (1995) Honoured as a Quality Guru by the British Department of Trade and Industry (1990) .Honours      Indigo Ribbon from the Emperor of Japan Willard F.

The philosophy of Off-line Quality Control.Taguchi Methods      Taguchi’s methodology is fundamentally a prototyping technique that enables engineers/ designers to produce a robust design which can survive repetitive manufacturing in order to deliver the functionality required by the customer. Taguchi's work includes three principle contributions to statistics: Taguchi Loss Function. and Innovations in the Design of Experiments .

Taguchi argued that such losses would inevitably find their way back to the originating. . Taguchi insisted that manufacturers broaden their horizons to consider cost to society. He also realised that excessive variation lay at the root of poor manufactured quality and that reacting to individual items inside and outside specification was counterproductive.TAGUCHI'S LOSS FUNCTION      Taguchi realised that there is a need to produce an outcome on target. He therefore argued that quality engineering should start with an understanding of quality costs in various situations.

L = 0 k = a constant  .a )2 where L = the loss to society of a unit of output at value x a = the ideal state target value.The quality loss function is given by the expression: L = k ( x . where at a.

Taguchi’s Loss Function Curve .

As we diverge from nominal. Taguchi wanted to find a useful way of representing them statistically.     Losses are very small when an item is near to negligible. and On-target. minimum-variation They are also called as the 3 Signal-to-Noise ratios . losses grow until the point where losses are too great to deny and the specification limit is drawn. Taguchi specified three situations: Smaller the better Larger the better.

Example.Smaller-the-better  This is usually the chosen S/N ratio for all undesirable characteristics like “defects “etc. minimization of heat losses in a heat exchanger . for which the ideal value is zero.

and the ideal target value is infinity. . Example. it is preferred to maximize the result. maximizing the product yield from a process.Larger-the-better  For this characteristic type.

most parts in mechanical fittings. Example. .Nominal-the-best  This case arises when a specified value is MOST desired. meaning that neither a smaller nor a larger value is desirable.

Consequently. he developed a strategy for quality engineering.OFF-LINE QUALITY CONTROL     Taguchi realized that the best opportunity to eliminate variation is during the design of a product and its manufacturing process. The process has three stages: System design Parameter (measure) design Tolerance design .

parts.System Design   The system design stage is where new ideas. concepts and knowledge in the areas of science and technology are utilized by the design team to determine the right combination of materials. and therefore improvements are not always made. . To achieve an increase in quality at this level requires innovation. processes and design factors that will satisfy functional and economical specifications.

they seek to exploit relationships and optimize settings that minimize the effects of the noise variables. the nominal values of the various dimensions and design parameters need to be set. environment and cumulative damage. Robust parameter designs consider controllable and uncontrollable noise variables. this allows the parameters to be chosen so as to minimize the effects on performance arising from variation in manufacture. This is also called robustification.Parameter Design   Once the concept is established. . In many circumstances.

Prediction/Confirmation In order to validate the optimum conditions we predict the performance of the product design under baseline and optimum settings of the control factors.     Robust Parameter design has 4 main steps: Problem Formulation This step consists of identifying the main function. and planning the experiments. defining the ideal function and S/N ratio. developing the P-diagram. Factor Effects Analysis The effects of the control factors are calculated in this step and the results are analyzed to select optimum setting of the control factors. Data Collection/Simulation The experiments may be conducted in hardware or through simulation. .

Tolerance Design    This section deals with the problem of how. It is believed that the quality and performance of any item can easily be improved by merely tightening up on some or all of its tolerance requirements. This can become expensive. however. Thus. and when. . to specify tightened tolerances for a product or a process so that quality and performance/ productivity are enhanced. only after extensive parameter design studies have been completed should tolerance design be performed as a last resort to improve quality and productivity. and is often not a guarantee of much better performance.

” combining a few noise factors to create two levels in the outer array. . Later innovations in outer arrays resulted in "compounded noise.DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS    Taguchi contended that conventional sampling is inadequate here as there is no way of obtaining a random sample of future conditions. The outer array should simulate the random environment in which the product would function. Taguchi proposed extending each experiment with an "outer array“.

The process is then said . This is the primary aim of the Taguchi experiments .P .Diagram (P stands for Process or Product) Noise is shown to be present in the process but should have no effect on the output.to minimize variations in output even though noise is present in the process.

Diagram (P stands for Process or Product) The output is supposed to follow input signal in a predetermined manner. volume control in audio amplifiers. . a linear relationship between "input" and "output" is desirable. For example: Accelerator pedals in cars. Generally.P .

8steps In Taguchi Methodology         Step-1: Identify the main function. predict the optimum levels and performance Step-8: Perform the verification experiment and plan the future action . side effects and failure mode Step-2: Identify the Noise factors. testing conditions and quality characteristics Step-3: Identify the objective function to be optimized Step-4: Identify the control factors and their levels Step-5: Select the orthogonal array matrix experiment Step-6: Conduct the matrix experiment Step-7: Analyze the data.

Ravella Diagram .

His emphasis on loss to society. development of electronic circuits. and even robust eco-design. such as the design of VLSI. runway utilization improvement in airports. parameter and tolerance design have been influential in improving manufactured quality worldwide. The methods are being successfully implemented in diverse areas. and his overall strategy of system. laser of photo masks. government policymaking.CONCLUSION   Genichi Taguchi has made valuable contributions to statistics and engineering. optimization of communication & information networks. cash-flow optimization in banking. . techniques for investigating variation in experiments.

Thank you ! .