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Chapter 8

Racial and Ethnic Inequality

Race and Ethnicity
 Race and ethnicity are ascribed characteristics that define categories of people.  Each of these characteristics have been used as bases of social stratification – that is, cultures have thought it right and proper that some people receive more scarce resources than others simply because they belong to one category rather than another.

Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality
The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity

refers to a category of people treated as distinct based
on physical characteristics to which social importance has been assigned.


an ethnic group is a category whose members are
thought to share a common origin and important elements of a common culture.
The social construction of race and ethnicity is the process by which a culture defines what constitutes a race or an ethnicity.

Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality
Majority and Minority Groups
A majority group is culturally, economically, and politically dominant.

A minority group is culturally, economically, and politically subordinate.
Although minority groups are usually smaller than majority groups, that is not always the case.

.Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality Patterns of Interaction  Pluralism is the peaceful coexistence of separate and equal cultures in the same society.  Assimilation is the process by which members of a minority culture lose their defining cultural features and adopt those of the majority culture.

or exile.Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality Patterns of Interaction Downward assimilation is the process in which descendants of immigrants become assimilated not into mainstream America. Conflict Racial and ethnic conflict can take the form of slavery. concentration camps. and economic participation by minorities.S. but instead into the ―underclass‖ world of long-term poor.-born minorities.S. In the extreme.. For much of the 20th century in the U. political. conflict results in genocide: mass killing to destroy a population. . U. conflict was reflected in laws and customs that forbade social.

ethnic identity was fluid and intermarriage was common. Before the conflict over resources in Sudan. the Sudanese government has promoted racial stereotyping of Sudanese Africans as inferior in order to control valuable lands and water supplies. . The slaughter of Sudanese Africans by Sudanese Arabs like these Janjaweed militia members has been encouraged.Understanding Racial and Ethnic Inequality Patterns of Interaction Since 2003.

Theoretical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Inequality Structural-Functional Theory  Explains how some groups benefit from racial  Acknowledges dysfunctions of social conflict.  Focus on how societies change gradually and continue to function smoothly without conflict. . and ethnic inequality.

etc. existence of slavery  Documents how disadvantaged groups are kept from gaining access to social advantages such as good schools. . access to technology. housing.Theoretical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Inequality Conflict Theory  Examines inequalities between majority and  minority groups from conflict over scarce resources Suggests that some groups have advantages due to historical circumstance ex. jobs.

Theoretical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Inequality Symbolic Interactionism  Focuses on how everyday interactions  Contributes to our understanding of the changing meanings of basic concepts like race and ethnicity over time because of social interaction. reinforce racial and ethnic inequality. .

negative attitude toward a category of people. Failure to succeed is the fault of the minority member. Color-Blind Racism: the belief that all races are created equal and that racial equality has been achieved. .Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality Prejudice: Refers to an irrational. Racism: the belief that inherited physical traits associated with racial groups determine abilities and characteristics of a group member and provide a legitimate basis for unequal treatment.

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality Prejudice  A stereotype is a preconceived. Explaining Prejudice: Research focuses on three factors: ◦ socialization ◦ scapegoating ◦ competition over scarce resources . simplistic idea about the members of a group.

Scapegoating – when people or groups who fail in their own goal attainment blame others for their own failures. Competition for scarce resources – attitudes of prejudice related to the belief that gains for other racial and ethnic groups mean losses for one‘s own group. .Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality Factors Contributing to Prejudice  Socialization – learning hate and fear as social   norms directed at racial or ethnic categories.

This is an important mechanism for maintaining prejudice. .Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality Maintaining Prejudice: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The belief that a situation exists causes the situation to become real.

– Robert Merton classified four types. – This can be either negative or positive. .  Prejudice is an attitude  Discrimination is behavior Discrimination – treating various categories of people unequally. – Prejudice and discrimination often occur together.Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality Discrimination  The unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of the category they belong to.

but doesn‘t discriminate • Active bigotry – prejudiced and openly discriminates . doesn‘t discriminate • Fair-weather liberalism – not prejudiced. does discriminate • Timid bigotry – prejudiced.Merton’s Typology • All-weather liberalism – not prejudiced.

economic differences across groups 2. Segregation still remains common for two reasons: 1.Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality Segregation The physical separation of minorities from the rest of the population.. discriminatory housing has been illegal since 1960s.S. unfair treatment of certain groups  . In the U.

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality Institutional Racism  Refers to situations in which everyday practices and social arrangements are assumed to be fair. even though they systematically reproduce racial or ethnic inequality. . for majority (dominant) and minority groups.  Institutional racism produces unequal results  School segregation and tracking reinforce racial inequality in the United States.

Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality Institutional Racism Discrimination and prejudice against Gypsies or Roma remain common in parts of Europe. Officials argue that placements are based on standardized tests. Forced evictions. . Almost all Roma children are placed in schools for the mentally handicapped. and substandard schooling result. terrible housing conditions. This policy makes it impossible for Roma children to succeed.

which is reinforced and multiplied by social class inequality. discrimination. institutionalized racism construct inequality. the median net worth (wealth) of non-Hispanic whites is 18 times higher. .  While non-Hispanic white median income is 1. and  Racial and ethnic groups display similar internal patterns of stratification.Maintaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality Multiplying Disadvantages  Prejudice. segregation.5 times higher than other groups.

S. Ethnic identities have declined. White Americans  Ethnicity is no longer a primary standard for  The place of ―unhyphenated whites‖ in the stratification among whites due to mixed heritage. – whites rarely think of themselves as having a ―race.  More of a focus on ―white‖ racial identity as invisible  White privilege refers to the benefits whites receive .‖ simply because they are white.Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U. multicultural mix of the United States is less a melting pot and more an assimilation to a dominant language and culture.

6% of the U. 2) African American families are less likely to have two earners.S.Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U. Comprise 12.e. African-Americans  Arrived involuntarily as slaves. Current concerns: neighborhood segregation • infant mortality • short lifespan for males • continued economic disadvantage • educational attainment lag Economic disadvantages due to two factors: 1) African American workers earn less than whites. poll taxes) and violent illegal (i. lynchings) barriers systematically excluded African Americans. population. Most African Americans  today are descended from slaves.S.    .e. legal (i. After slavery ended.

Experiences of different Hispanic groups vary.S. Hispanics    Hispanic Americans (Latinos) are an ethnic group rather than a racial category.Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U. Puerto Rico. population.S. Majority (~66%) are of Mexican heritage. Latinos have also arrived in America from Cuba. and other Central and South American nations.3% of the U. Current Concerns: most poorly educated group • greatest likelihood of living in poverty . whereas other Hispanic groups face prejudice and discrimination)   Hispanics constitute 16. Wealthy exiled Cubans were welcomed as refugees. making them the largest minority group in the country. (i.e.

Current concerns: entrance to Ivy League schools difficult • income and promotional disparity . and internment to being a desirable group with high mobility and educational attainment. post-WWII immigrants (Philippines. recent refugees from Southeast Asia. violence. population. Segmented immigration: descendants of 19th-century immigrants (Japan & China). Asian Americans     About 3.6% of U. Historical experiences of Asian immigrants went from hostility.Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U.S. Korea.S. India).

‖ Trail of Tears More than 200 tribal groups with different cultures and languages. removal of children to ―boarding schools. and New Mexico. Arizona. forced relocation.  Current concerns: most disadvantaged group • lowest rates of education • highest rates of alcoholism and premature death • impoverished and isolated reservations • prejudice and discrimination persists .Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U. Nearly half live in Oklahoma. population. California.     Native Americans Less than 1% of U.S. Historical experiences of subjugation.S.

Current concerns: anti-Arab views since 9/11 • hate crimes against them more common • discrimination . Iraq and Lebanon) Diverse traditions. Arab Americans       Much less than 1% of U. Immigrants or children of immigrants from North Africa and Middle East (Morocco.Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U. 33% Muslim High education attainment and median income levels. 66% Christian. Algeria. but share common linguistics and cultural and historical traditions. Saudi Arabia.S.S. population.

Current concerns: social and systemic resistance to multiracial identification • pressure to identify a single racial slot  .S.9% of American population.Racial & Ethnic Inequality in U. Absolute number of multiracial Americans has increased more than 20 times over last half century. Multiracial Americans   Comprise about 2. significant numbers of mixed race individuals now selfidentify as multiracial rather than choosing only one parent‘s race.

Some strategies promote full employment and better jobs for all Americans (class focus).S. Current debate: Can inequality better be reduced by focusing on race or on class? Double jeopardy is having low status on two different dimensions of stratification (i. Combating Inequality: Race versus Class  Minority group social status has improved overall in     U.e.The Future of Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the U.S.. . race and social class). others focus on race and ethnicity. Effect of double jeopardy – disadvantages snowball. yet inequality remains.

The Future of Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the U. Affirmative action laws: require employers. and national origin. religion. . Antidiscrimination laws: outlaw discrimination on the basis of race. Affirmative action has proven much more contentious than antidiscrimination laws. sex. schools.S. and others to increase the representation of groups that historically have experienced discrimination. color. Strategies for Ending Inequality Most sociologists focus on strategies aimed at reducing racial and ethnic discrimination.

. Asians. identified as only one race/ethnicity: African American  This does not happen to children of other mixed parents. A New Racial/Ethnic Divide?  Most evidence reveals a new divide: ―black/nonblack. and Hispanics.  Affirmative action categorization of racial/ethnic groups  Some evidence suggests that country is dividing into (nonwhite) as ―people of color‖ implicitly reinforces longstanding white/nonwhite divide.  Children born to white/African American parents are and Native Americans is more common. three groups: whites. African Americans.‖  Intermarriage between whites and Hispanics.S.The Future of Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the U.

and Sexuality .Chapter 9 Sex. Gender.

 Gender roles refer to the rights and obligations that are normative for men and women in a particular culture. ◦ Although biology provides two distinct and universal sexes. . cultures provide almost infinitely varied gender roles. and roles that cultures assign to each sex.Understanding Sex and Gender Sex and Gender  Sex is the biological distinction between male or female.  Gender refers to the attitudes. behaviors.

2004) Gender Roles Across Cultures . ◦ Preference for male children. Power difference produces widespread violence against women: ◦ ―Violence and discrimination against women are global social epidemics.‖ (Human Rights Watch.Understanding Sex and Gender  Gender roles vary widely across cultures.  Some similarities exist – in almost all cultures:  ◦ Men tend to have more power.

.  In Afghanistan. and Europe. mostly in African countries but also in Asia. have undergone genital mutilation. about 1. disfiguring and sometimes blinding them.  Between 100 and 140 million women.5 million American women are raped or physically assaulted by intimate partners. South America. Islamic fundamentalists have thrown acid onto the faces of girls who dare to go to school.Understanding Sex and Gender Gender Roles Across Cultures Violence Toward Women:  Each year.

.Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Inequality Structural-Functional Theory: Division of Labor A gendered division of labor is functional because specialization will: 1. Ensure that each sex is well-trained in its own tasks and that all necessary tasks get done. 2. Prevent potentially disruptive competition between men and women. Strengthen family bonds by forcing men and women to depend on each other. 3.

 Sexism is the belief that women are biologically   Discrimination is the natural result of sexism. Sexism continues because it reduces women‘s access to scarce resources and thus helps men stay in power. women‘s narrow and low-valued options benefit men. . inferior to men and so it is justified to treat them unequally.Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Inequality Conflict Theory: Sexism and Discrimination According to conflict theorists.

◦ Teachers structure children‘s play and impose ◦ Boys are actively discouraged from playing ―dress-up.  Gender Status beliefs: ◦ Broadly shared within a culture and identify one gender (men) as more respected. worthy. crawling.Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Inequality Symbolic Interactionism: Gender Inequality in Everyday Life  Study of preschoolers (1998) found that: discipline that reinforce gender differences.‖ and girls are discouraged from running. . and competent than the other (women). or lying on the ground.

Gender as Social Construction and Social Structure Reinforcing Biological Differences  The belief that males and females are biologically different can become a self-fulfilling prophecy that keeps males and females biologically different. . (Lorber 1994)  Belief in the naturalness of biological difference is reinforced when we are kept from seeing similarities.

Gender as Social Construction and Social Structure “Doing Gender”  Refers to everyday activities that individuals engage in to affirm their commitment to gender roles. continually demonstrating one‘s masculinity (which in mainstream culture includes one‘s heterosexuality). . ◦  Compulsive heterosexuality consists of Male nurses sometimes talk about their athletic interests or heterosexual conquests to keep others from questioning their masculinity.

sports equipment is sized to fit the average man ◦ men who do housework are ridiculed by friends ◦ there are differences in pay for men and women . a property of society. executive chairs. fathers don‘t get paternity leave ◦ power tools. Gender is built into social structure when: ◦ workplaces have no daycare.Gender as Social Construction and Social Structure Gender as Social Structure Gender is also a social structure.

Education.  Men more vulnerable to stress-related disease  Men are four times more likely to commit suicide . women = 81.9 yrs (probability estimate for birth year 2020)  Young men more likely to die in auto accidents than women. and Income Health Gender disadvantages work both ways in the US:  Life expectancy for men = 77.Gender Inequality in Health. men more likely to be killed by guns.1 yrs.

 As a result. ◦ Teachers hold low expectations for African American boys. Poor African American males are least likely to graduate from high school or college. and Income Education  Today. master‘s and doctoral degrees.  Studies show that differences are largely socially constructed and structurally reinforced: ◦ Working class boys may learn that ―real men‖ work with their muscles and ―soft men‖ focus on schooling. concern about graduation rates has shifted from women to men. men and women are equally likely to be high school graduates and get bachelor‘s. . Education.Gender Inequality in Health.

Gender Inequality in Health. Education. major inequalities in pay ratios persist. The gap is far smaller than it used to be and will likely continue to shrink. Women earn less than men – even in the same occupations. . Work and Income  Yet despite growing equality in work force involvement. and Income  Among Americans age 16 and over. 72% of men compared with 59% of women are in the labor force.

and Income Work and Income Different Occupations. . Education. 3. Different qualifications – Women are less likely to have as much experience or education as men.Gender Inequality in Health. Gendered occupations – Lower-paying jobs tend to be ―women‘s work. Different Earnings: 1. Discrimination works against women‘s options in the world of work.‖ 2.

◦ Glass Ceiling – an invisible barrier to women’s promotions ◦ Glass Escalator – an invisible advantage that rapidly moves men into administrative positions and prestigious specialties . Ex: Male lawyers earn more than female lawyers. Different Earnings: 1. 2. Education. Different titles – ―janitor‖ and ―junior executive‖ (male titles) earn more than ―maid‖ and ―executive assistant‖ (female titles). and Income Work and Income Same Occupation. men are hired more by large firms to specialize in ‗prestigious‘ areas of law. Discrimination – even women with the same titles earn less than men.Gender Inequality in Health.

 In colleges. In politics. prejudice against women leaders remains strong.Gender and Power  Women‘s subordinate position is built into most social institutions. women‘s basketball coaches  are paid less than men‘s basketball coaches. and women still comprise only a minority of major elected officials in the United States and around the world. Unequal Power in Social Institutions .

 Men take up more of the speaking time. and women are more likely to state their opinions as questions. age much more than men‘s. sexual  Women‘s chances of marriage decrease with behavior is generally initiated by men. they  Women are more placating and less assertive in conversation than men. . they interrupt more successfully. and most important.Gender and Power Unequal Power in Interaction  It is men who ask women on dates. interrupt women more often.

hostile sexual climate makes it impossible to do your job (pornographic materials posted. Two types: 1. requests for sexual favors. Quid pro quo expectation of sexual favor in exchange for something else (keeping your job.Gender and Power A Case Study: Sexual Harassment Consists of unwelcome sexual advances. As many as half of all working women  experience sexual harassment during their lifetime. sexual jokes) Sexual harassment remains common – if illegal – in work environments . better grades) 2. and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.

―radical feminist‖ issue was violence – war protests. violence against women. ―Liberal feminist‖ issue was equal rights.Gender and Power Fighting Back Against Sexism The Feminist Movement has united women in the fight against sexual harassment. Nineteenth Amendment in 1920. right to vote. Issues: right to own property.  Third Wave – 1990s. right to enter into contracts. woman battering. rights of woman‘s own body. right to education. job discrimination and other equal rights issues.  Second Wave – 1960s.  First Wave – mid-nineteenth century. . Focus on different effects of inequality among different groups of women.

The Sociology of Sexuality Sexual Scripts  Sexual scripts refer to the cultural expectations regarding who. mass media.  We are exposed to sexual scripts from multiple sources: parents. when. how. and with whom one should have sex. . where. why.  The sexual scripts we adopt often change over time.  There is variation between the sexual scripts of different cultures. and there is some variation in sexual scripts within a culture. teachers. religious leaders. friends.

 Teens and adults may engage in hook ups – . among teens have declined to about 46% among both boys and girls. rates of sexual intercourse casual sexual encounters.The Sociology of Sexuality Premarital and Adolescent Sexuality  Premarital intercourse has become largely accepted for adults over the last few decades. who say they have had sexual intercourse increased from 40% in the 1950s to 50% for girls and 60% for boys by the late 1980s.  The proportion of never-married teenagers  Since then.

The Sociology of Sexuality Premarital and Adolescent Sexuality Explaining the Decline in Sex Among Teens  Research consistently finds no credible evidence that    abstinence-only sex education programs work – they only delay sexual intercourse in the first few months. . In a 2011 study. Yet condom use is rare once individuals are in a relationship. 80% boys and 69% girls reported using a condom the last time they had sexual intercourse. The drop in teenage sexual activity more likely reflects the growing awareness of the threats posed by AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

The Sociology of Sexuality Marital Sexuality  Sexual scripts followed by married couples have changed little over time in some ways.  Important changes in sexual scripts followed by married couples in recent years include: ◦ Oral sex has become more common. ◦ Most couples find that the frequency of intercourse declines with the length of the marriage. ◦ Extramarital affairs are now equally likely among men and women. education. ◦ The decline appears to occur regardless of the couple‘s age. . or situation.

The Sociology of Sexuality Sexual Minorities Homosexuality in Society: Homosexuals are also known as gays and lesbians.    . Somewhere between 2-6% of Americans describe themselves as homosexual and as many describe themselves as bisexual. Homosexuals are people who prefer sexual and romantic relationships with members of their own sex. Rates are about two times as high among men as women.

Movement evolved out of civil rights and feminist activism in late 1960s and early 1970s. and neighbors were affected. Riot gave birth to the modern gay rights movement.The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement  Growing acceptance of homosexuality is a direct result  of the gay and lesbian rights movement. relatives. coworkers.  Stonewall Riots were sign of change – patrons fought back when police raided a New York City gay bar. heterosexuals realizing how many friends.  Identification of the AIDS epidemic in 1981 had . Police retaliation only increased numbers of rioting gays and lesbians – over 2000 people involved over a few days.

In the U. the norm remains heterosexuality. Gays and lesbians can now openly serve in the U.The Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement • Today. . 21 states and DC outlaw discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. the repeal of the military‘s ―don‘t ask. don‘t tell‖ policy was a major victory for the gay rights movement. • Heteronormativity is the ideology that heterosexuality is the only normal sexual identity. Armed Forces..S.S. • In 2011. so society should be organized to reflect this.

. ◦ Transsexuals are persons who psychologically feel they are trapped in the body of the wrong sex. There are two types of transgendered people: ◦ Intersex persons are individuals who are born with ambiguous genitalia.The Sociology of Sexuality Sexual Minorities Transgender in Society:  Transgendered persons are individuals whose  sex or sexual identity is not definitively male or female. such as a small penis as well as ovaries.

Chapter 10 Health and Health Care .

 Health-related debt is a major cause of personal bankruptcy. illness.  Current economic conditions increase concerns about health care. and health care are affected by social forces and social status.Health and Health Care as a Social Problem  Health. .  45 million Americans under age 65 lacked health insurance in 2007.

legitimately sick 2. not held responsible 3. Defining the sick role – four social norms attach to sick people: 1. seek and follow medical advice  .Theoretical Perspectives on Illness Structure-Functionalist Theory: The Sick Role How does society control illness so that it increases rather than decreases social stability? Parson‘s “sick role” allows society to sympathize with non-productivity and excuse it temporarily. should work to get well 4.

epilepsy Ill persons should seek medical help Strep throat. broken leg Model fits poorly: Undiagnosed chronic fatigue AIDS. hemophilia Tuberculosis.Theoretical Perspectives on Illness Critiquing the sick role… Elements of the Sick Role Illness is a valid reason to not fulfill obligations Ill persons are not held responsible for illness Ill persons should strive to get well Model fits well: Appendicitis. lung cancer Rheumatoid arthritis. syphilis Alzheimer‘s. cancer Measles. colds “Sick Role” does not work well for: chronic illness. those who cannot afford medical services. people who have habits causing disease .

male sexual dysfunction. and alcoholism are medicalized  Social groups with social power define what is to be medicalized. the desire to go to college were considered symptoms of illness. One hundred years ago. conditions. restless leg syndrome.  Today. homosexuality. among young women. and.  These conditions are not now considered illnesses – because social ideas about them have changed.Theoretical Perspectives on Illness Conflict Theory: Medicalization  The process through which a condition or behavior becomes defined as a medical problem requiring a  medical solution. . masturbation.

Theoretical Perspectives on Illness Symbolic Interaction Theory: The Experience of Illness  Symbolic interaction theory is useful for understanding what it is like to live with illness and what happens when doctors and patients have different definitions of the situation.  To doctors. . any patient who does not follow their medical orders is engaging in medical noncompliance.

Sociologists approach this question at two levels: ◦ micro – individuals making high-risk choices ◦ macro – social structure limiting choices Both of these have to do with individuals‘ risk and identifying what those risks are.The Social Causes of Health and Illness Doctors have few opportunities to focus ―upstream‖ and ask why their patients get sick in the first place. .

Underlying Causes of Preventable Death in the United States .

 They must believe the problem is serious.  They must not perceive any significant barriers to adopting the preventive behaviors.  Individuals must believe they are at risk for a health problem.The Social Causes of Health and Illness The Health Belief Model Predicts whether individuals will adopt behaviors that protect their health. .  They must believe that adopting preventive measures will reduce their risks.

◦ Tobacco producers implicitly promote smoking to teens. ◦ Soda manufacturers fought for the right to sell their high-calorie products in schools.The Social Causes of Health and Illness Macro-Level Answers: Manufacturers of Illness  The manufacturers of illness are groups that promote and benefit from deadly behaviors and social conditions. . Examples: ◦ Car manufacturers fought against bumpers that would make SUVs less dangerous to other cars.

Gender.  Not all benefit equally – men. and more affluent people. whites. the average resident now lives to be a senior citizen. and poor people die younger on average when compared to women. social class. African th  Americans. average life expectancy was less than 50 years..S. and race/ethnicity are related to illness and mortality.  In the U.The Social Distribution of Health and Illness  In the beginning of the 20 century. .

women live ~5 years longer than men Women experience more disability and discomfort than men Men engage in riskier behaviors than do women Women have higher rates of illness .S.The Social Distribution of Health and Illness Gender On average: U.

the longer  one‘s life expectancy and the better one‘s health. and psychosocial factors appear to play even stronger roles in linking poverty with ill health. .The Social Distribution of Health and Illness Social Class  The higher one‘s social class. economic. Environmental.

Hispanic Americans. and Native Americans suffer disproportionately from status-related effects on health  More likely to lack health insurance  More likely to work in toxic environment  Less likely to have life-preserving treatment due to discrimination .The Social Distribution of Health and Illness Race and Ethnicity  African Americans.

65% Hispanics. most people have one longlasting health problem  68+ years: 80% white non-Hispanic.The Social Distribution of Health and Illness Age  Very young and very old at highest health risk  In poor countries. the death rate for infants and children under 5 years is high  By 65 years. and 63% African Americans report good health .

Infant Mortality Rates per 1.000 Live Births .

S.Mental Illness How Many Mentally Ill?  During the course of any given year in the U. depression and problems with alcohol use.. approximately 11% of working age adults experience a minor but diagnosable mental illness.  The most common illnesses are major symptoms. not on medical diagnoses.  These estimates are based on reports of . and another 20% experience a moderate or severe illness.

Gender Differences – overall rates of mental illness higher among women. Men have higher rates for substance abuse and personality disorders.Mental Illness Who Becomes Mentally Ill? Two significant factors: 1. Lower class receive less effective treatment and are hospitalized longer. 2. . Social Class Differences – lower class experiences more social stress that can lead to mental illness.

Working in Health Care
Physicians: Fighting to Maintain Professional Autonomy

 Less than 5% of medical staff are physicians.  Until about 100 years ago, anyone could claim

to be a doctor – training and procedures were variable and mostly bad. American Medical Association was created in 1848 and by 1910, strict medical training and licensing standards were adopted.

Working in Health Care
Physicians: Fighting to Maintain Professional Autonomy

Understanding Physicians’ Income and Prestige Current income averages: family practitioners $163,510, general surgeons $225,390. Structural-functionalists: high salaries due to short supply of persons who have the ability to become physicians or surgeons. Conflict theorists: the high prestige accorded physicians has more to do with use of power of AMA to promote self-interest than with what is best for society.

 

Working in Health Care
Physicians: Fighting to Maintain Professional Autonomy

Changing Status of Physicians…

 A growing proportion of physicians work in

 Getting a ―second opinion‖ is now general practice; malpractice suits are commonplace.  Fees and treatments are increasingly regulated
by government agencies and insurance companies concerned about reducing costs.

group practices or corporations. Fees, procedures, and working hours are determined by bureaucrats.

Working in Health Care

 Of the nearly 10 million people employed in
 

Nurses: Fighting for Professional Status
health care, 1.8 million are registered nurses. No hospital could run without nurses; no doctor could function without them. Their contribution to health care is enormous, yet their status remains far lower than might be expected.

Cost controls mean fewer nurses with heavier workloads.400.Working in Health Care Nurses: Fighting for Professional Status Nurses’ current status… Relatively little autonomy – even the most junior physicians can give orders to senior nurses. nursing is seen as an extension of female duty. . a little more than 1/3 the income of doctors Because of the female ―tradition‖ of nurturance. Median income: $62.

By 2006. they spent an average of $6. The three primary modes of financing health care in the United States are: ◦ Paying out of pocket ◦ Private insurance ◦ Government programs . By 2013 it will likely be twice that.Understanding Health-Care Systems Paying for Health Care in the US  Americans paid an average $372 per person to   doctors and hospitals in 1970.561.

Out of Pocket – only the very rich can afford to pay for anything beyond minor problems. Medicaid (need-based) and Medicare (people 65+).Understanding Health-Care Systems Paying for Health Care in the US Private Insurance – via employers (government. . Medicare could go bankrupt by 2017 if taxes are not raised or if costs are not lowered. Private insurance providers are ―for profit‖ corporations. large companies. corporations). Government Programs – state public health clinics and hospitals.

Require all Americans to obtain health insurance 2. .Require insurers to insure individuals with pre-existing health problems. based on the Massachusetts health insurance program.Understanding Health-Care Systems The Struggle to Expand Health Insurance Coverage In 2010.Require employers to subsidize employee health care 3.Expand Medicaid to include all poor and near-poor Americans younger than 65 yrs 4. But program costs are high. to allow young people to remain on parent insurance policies until age 26. Congress passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. It will: 1. many will still not be able to afford health care insurance.

Percentage of Americans Who Are Uninsured Close to 20% of Americans less than 65 years of age lack health insurance. People are most likely to be uninsured if they are: ◦ young adults ◦ poor or near poor ◦ racial minorities ◦ have no full-time workers in their household .

to keep costs down). Examples: Canada and U. being non-profit. pressure pharmaceutical. etc. medical care is regarded as something that all citizens should receive regardless of ability to pay. Reduced costs from: administrative efficiencies.K. .e. Single-payer system: paid from a single source – the government. control of ancillary costs (i.Health Care in Other Countries National Health Care Systems In the rest of the industrialized world.. Doctors can be paid on a salary or fee for service basis. medical services.

and spends several times less on health care. and food Raise education levels and thereby incomes Use of traditional healing practices.Health Care in Other Countries Good Care at Low Cost Primary focus on prevention: Use of less-expensive care providers such as nurses and midwives Improved sanitation.S. . housing. Example: China has life expectancy only 4 years lower than the U.

Chapter 11 Family .

emotional support . belongingness.Marriage and Family Around the World Universal Aspects  Replacing population through reproduction  Regulating sexual behavior  Caring for dependents – children. elderly.   disabled Socializing the young Providing intimacy.

Marriage: The formal socially or legally recognized union of two people. . adoption. or quasimarital commitment.Marriage and Family Around the World Universal Aspects Family: A group of persons linked together by blood. marriage.

or marriage. Marriage and Family Around the World Family Patterns: Extended – a family in which a couple and their children live with other relatives. .a household where one or both members of the couple have pre-existing children who live with them Fictive kin – people regarded as family even though they are not related by blood. Nuclear – a family in which parents and children form an independent household. Blended – a family that includes children born to one parent as well as children born to both parents. Stepfamily. Cross-household – children shift back and forth between more than one household. adoption.

Children’s Living Arrangements Although the majority of U. many live in other circumstances. children still live with two married parents (biological or adoptive). . Fewer people are expected to care for the child.S. Children born outside of marriage are more vulnerable.Marriage and Family Around the World U.S.

Marriage and Family Around the World: Cross-Cultural Variations  Marriage Patterns: ◦ Monogamy – a marriage in which there is only one wife and one husband. Serial monogamy -individuals marry several people but only one at a time ◦ Polygamy – any form of marriage in which a person may have more than one spouse at a time. Two forms: •Polygyny -A form of marriage that unites one man and two or more women •Polyandry -Unites one woman and two or more men • .

.The U. but about 1 in 5 children are raised in poverty and many are abused.S.S.  About 66% of mothers of pre-school children time.S.  Studies show that the preparatory benefits of day-care outweigh the disadvantages. children are born to single mothers. but the quality of the program makes a difference. norms call for childhood to be a sheltered  28% U. work and children spend time in day-care. Family over the Life Course Childhood  U.

S. Adolescents are under constant pressure about the future. Family over the Life Course Adolescence Contemporary society has ambiguous. . This is a difficult transition time filled with mixed messages.The U.   often contradictory expectations.

Family over the Life Course Transition to Adulthood  Rites of Passage – Some societies have   formal rituals that signal the end of one status and the beginning of another. delay marriage . In the U. living away from parents. transition to adulthood usually means getting a job. Many live with or get money from parents.S..S. becoming financially independent. Transition period has slowed because of: ◦ Economic crisis – unemployment and high cost of living. ◦ Changing attitudes – extend schooling.The U.

40% women and 30% men have never married.S. ◦ Propinquity (spatial nearness) is a big factor – frequent interaction. Seeking Sexual and Romantic Relationships: ◦ Expectation of early marriage has decreased ◦ By their late 20s. Family over the Life Course Early Adulthood A key issue is deciding if and whom to marry. but most looking for at least a temporary partner. sign of social similarities  .The U. ◦ Ambivalent about marriage.

Family over the Life Course  Sorting through the marriage market ◦ Homogamy – choosing a mate similar in status to oneself. ◦ Heterogamy – choosing a mate who is different in status from oneself. ethnic. ethnic.The U. ◦ Endogamy – choosing a mate from within one‘s own racial. Early Adulthood . or religious group. ◦ Exogamy – choosing a mate from outside one‘s racial. or religious group. **Homogamy and Heterogamy imply more of a choice whereas endogamy and exogamy imply following a traditional practice or requirement.S.

Family over the Life Course  Responding to Narrow Marriage Markets Early Adulthood ◦ African American women are much less likely to marry than white women.S. ◦ African American men (stereotyped as hypermasculine) are more likely than women to find exogamous spouses. ◦ Asian women (stereotyped as hyperfeminine) are more likely than men to marry exogamously. . ◦ Among all groups.The U. a shortage of males employed in good jobs with adequate earnings sharply reduces the likelihood that a woman will marry or even live with a man outside of marriage.

and economic resources • Egalitarian—both partners share power and authority equally . political. and economic resources • Patriarchal—the oldest men control cultural. political.Marriage and Family: Residence Patterns and Authority Patterns • Patrilocal —a newly married couple lives with the husband’s family • Matrilocal—a newly married couple lives with the wife’s family • Neolocal—the newly married couple sets up its own residence • Matriarchal—the oldest females control cultural.

.Intermarriage and dating have become far more common over time. Differences in the availability of marriageable men account for at least 40% of the racial difference in overall marriage rates. especially between white men and Asian American women.

Middle Age . Family over the Life Course  Between 45-60 is a quieter time – expectation of empty nest (children leave home)  Many families do not experience empty nests: ◦ Economic crisis – many adult children live in their parents‘ home and many middle-aged parents have moved in with their adult children. ◦ Extended families are increasing with cultural preferences of immigrant families and the effects of an aging population – care for aging parents.The U.S.

78% of men aged 65-74 are still married. also in provision of childcare and financial help. Elderly prefer to live alone. . Grandparent role is important to satisfaction. Family over the Life Course Age 65 and beyond  Men have shorter life spans and tend to marry    younger women – marriage is not equally available to aging women. 50% of ―old old‖ will develop memory and thinking problems and rely heavily on family or care workers.The U.S. 57% of women of the same age are still married.

This can create considerable strain when the daughters find themselves simultaneously responsible for their parents and their children. Family over the Life Course As people move into the ―oldest old‖ group.S.The U. most come to rely heavily on their daughters for assistance. .

. but in 25% of dual-earner families. of happiness for both husband and wife greatest when housework is evenly split. race and social class divisions.Roles and Relationships in Marriage Gender roles in marriage  Men are considered primary providers for their  Women do about 66% of housework. families. Most employers are white middle-class women. chances  Paid domestic labor reinforces gender. the wives outearn the husband. most labor is minority working-class women.

Violence against men occurs but less often and less severely. Violence is more common in male homosexual relationships.S.Roles and Relationships in Marriage Gender roles in marriage The right for husbands to beat or rape wives was built into U. but rarer among lesbians. 1 in 3 women have been assaulted (1 out of 4 has been assaulted severely). law and only was challenged in the 1960s. About 1 in 10 women have been raped by an intimate partner.     .

Men are more likely than women to beat their spouses because men are more likely to believe that it is their right to control their spouses. it remains distressingly common. .Roles and Relationships in Marriage Although violence among married couples has declined. Relationship violence is not restricted to any class or race.

 Most people desire and have children to guarantee love and affection for years to come.Roles and Relationships in Marriage The Parental Role  Children are expensive and time-consuming.  Parenting roles remain disparate: women still hold more responsibilities to childcare than men.  Having children reduces marital happiness.  But there are changes:  Stepparent estimates: about 1/3 of all children will live with a stepparent before age 18 ◦ More fathers raising children on their own ◦ Growing numbers of ―stay-at-home dads‖ .

. Mothers still bear far more of household and childcare burdens. Fathers now take more responsibility for child care and household tasks than they did in previous generations.Fathers 80% of mothers work. leaving many mothers overworked and feeling underappreciated.

Whether couples cohabit before marrying has no effect on their marital satisfaction or stability.Contemporary Family Choices Marriage or Cohabitation  Cohabitation means living with a romantic or     sexual partner before marriage. Deinstitutionalization of marriage – the gradual disintegration of social norms that defined marriage as essential. More than half of all Americans are expected to cohabit at some point in their lives. . The fight for (and against) gay rights to marry suggests that marriage is still very important.

Infant health problems and death are more likely with teen mothers. births are non-marital. Most of these are to women 20 years of age and older. .S. Many women having non-marital births cohabit with the fathers. Many women are electing to be single parents. Teen mothers are more likely to be poor.Contemporary Family Choices Having Children…or Not Non-marital Births Half of all U. Teen childbearing has declined considerably since 1991.

Percentage of Births to Girls and Women Under Age 21 Births to teenage mothers are least common in wealthier states as well as in Utah. which has an unusually high Mormon population. They are most common across the southern tier of the country. . an area with many poor African Americans and poor Hispanic immigrants.

 .Contemporary Family Choices Having Children…or Not Delayed Childbearing Many women are electing to delay having children 5-10 years after marriage. ~25% women ages 30-34 are childless. Choosing Childlessness While many women will eventually want children. increasing numbers have decided that they are uninterested in having children.

and fewer single mothers give up their babies. Overseas adoptions raise serious issues about the commodification of children – where children are treated as goods available for purchase or theft. The availability of healthy white or Asian babies for adoption is low. .Contemporary Family Choices Birth control and abortion have reduced the number of unwanted babies.

Contemporary Family Choices Blending Work and Family  Couples spend less time together today.   . mothers spend as much time with children as they did 40 years ago. ◦ Workweeks and workdays are getting longer. Reasons for this are: ◦ 69% of married women aged 25 to 34 work. ◦ Many working class work more than one job. those who can afford it hire help. Mothers cut back on housework and have fewer children. fathers spend more. Despite the time crunch.

Predictors of divorce within the first 10 years of marriage: 1. women have options. Parental divorce 3. Premarital childbearing 4. Race 6. divorce is socially accepted. .Contemporary Family Choices Divorce  Estimates indicate that 40-50% of first  marriages today will end in divorce. Religion  Societal factors include: cultural changes to expectations in marriage. Age at marriage 2. Education 5. economic crises.

Chapter 12 Education and Religion .

Educational and Religious Institutions  Education and religion are central components  Almost all people in the U. and a strong majority practice a religion. school.S. have attended of these two institutions.  All people are affected by the norms and values . of any nation and have profound effects on our society and individuals.

Nearly 3 of every 10 people in the U. students. or educational professionals.S. As taxpayers. parents. participates in education daily as students or staff.   . we are all involved in the institution of education in some way.Theoretical Perspectives on Education  The educational institution is the social structure responsible for the formal transmission of knowledge.

Theoretical Perspectives on Education Structural-Functional Theory: Functions of Education  Concerned with the consequences of  Educational system is designed to keep society running smoothly: ◦ Training and knowledge – of each generation ◦ Socialization – discipline. . cooperation. cultural knowledge ◦ Sorting – channel students based on their abilities ◦ Promoting Change – critical and analytical skills educational institutions for the maintenance of society. obedience. punctuality.

In addition to skills such as reading and writing. education is an important means of reproducing culture.Education and Culture In all societies. school uniforms emphasize group solidarity over individual achievement. children learn many of the dominant cultural values. . In Japan.

often a surrogate for race. gender and social class.Theoretical Perspectives on Education  Education as a Capitalist Tool – hidden curriculum teaches obedience and conformity. Conflict Theory: Education and the Perpetuation of Inequality .  Education as a Status Marker – credentials are  Unequal Education and Inequality – use of education as a status marker reinforced by unequal opportunities for education across society. Credentialism is a social bias based on credentials.  Education as a Cultural Tool – teaches the cultural perspective of the dominant culture.

Biases are embedded in their views and result in assumptions and perpetuate bias.  Teachers may hold racist and classist views common in U. society resulting in bias. Symbolic Interactionism: The Selffulfilling Prophecy .  Students possess disparate ―cultural capital‖ which helps or hinders interactions with teachers.Theoretical Perspectives on Education  Focus on the processes.S.  Teachers grew up in a society with racist. The ―learning‖ process can vary greatly across society. sexist and classist biases.

Current Controversies in American Education Tracking  Use of early evaluation to determine the  educational programs a child will be encouraged to follow Based primarily on reading ability: ◦ Some directed to college preparatory tracks ◦ Some directed into general/vocational education ◦ Others directed into special (remedial) education  Research shows modest benefit if students are assigned to high-ability groups and significant disadvantages for students placed in low-ability groups. .

physical education. punished or rewarded on the basis of these tests. .Current Controversies in American Education High-Stakes Testing  Federal law now requires schools to measure student performance using standardized tests.  Teachers and schools are evaluated and  Often programs in art music.  Students now must pass ―high-stakes‖ tests before they can move to a higher grade. and languages are dropped as more resources put into tested areas.

 Options including tuition vouchers. charter schools. 2007) Opponents of school choice point to negative consequences of reinforcing social inequality and segregation. and home schooling. The best current research suggests that children sent to charter schools do no better and sometimes do worse than children in public schools.Current Controversies in American Education School Choice  Concern about the quality of American public education has led to support for school choice. 2006) . (Saporito & Sohoni.   magnet schools. (Renzulli & Roscigno. tax credits.

Ethnic and social class differences affect college attendance greater than sex differences. Rates of women in all ethnic groups attending college increased steadily. .College and Society Who Goes?  Until recently. White men are still most likely to receive professional and doctoral degrees and be in field with highest income. non-Hispanic white males were    the group most likely to be enrolled in college.

Ethnicity. 1975 and 2009 As depicted in this chart. and Sex. differences in high school graduation rates among racial and ethnic groups is an important factor in who attends college.Percentage of High School Graduates Ages 18 to 21 Enrolled in College. . by Race.

Why Go? . language. civic engagement  College prepares students for middle class jobs: shapes demeanor. critical thinking.College and Society  Learn logic. and belief in their intellectual abilities.

are much more likely to be employed. Those who graduate college earn twothirds more than high school graduates.Socioeconomic Consequences of Higher Education Going to college pays off. and are more likely to have a professional job. .

Understanding Religion
What is Religion?

 The institution of religion is an important part
 
of social life. It is intertwined with politics and culture and involved in integration and conflict. Religion is a system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things that unites believers into a moral community. Sociologists examine how culture, society, and other social forces affect religion, and how religion affects individuals and social structure.

Understanding Religion
Why Religion?

 Every society has forms of religious activity
 
and expressions of religious behavior. Religion is a fundamental feature in all societies. It helps individuals interpret and cope with events beyond our control and understanding. Beliefs and rituals develop as a way to appease the greater force.

Distribution of World Religions

Christianity is the dominant religion in the Americas, Europe, and Australia, but elsewhere other religions are far more common.

Understanding Religion
Why Religion Now? The Rise of Fundamentalism

 Until the 1970s, scholars thought that as
science advanced, secularization would increase.

 Secularization is the process of transferring
objects, ideas, or events from the sacred realm to the non-sacred (secular) realm.

 While there has been some drop in
American religiosity, fundamentalism has grown dramatically in the last 30 years.

Changing Religious Commitment 1962–2010 During the last 40 years. a bigger drop in those who say religion is very important in their lives. . and a sharp drop in the proportion who think that the Bible is the actual word of God. there has been a small drop in the proportion of Americans who belong to a religion.

Understanding Religion Why Religion Now? The Rise of Fundamentalism Fundamentalism refers to religious movements that: ◦ Believe heir most sacred book or books to be the literal word of God ◦ Accept traditional interpretations of those books ◦ Stress the importance of living in ways that mesh with those traditional interpretations .

Human experience is divided into: Profane – all that is routine in everyday world. Sacred – events and things we hold in awe and reverence. A set of beliefs about the supernatural that help people cope with the uncertainties of life. A body of rituals or practices. that we cannot understand or control 2. . that we understand and control.Theoretical Perspectives on Religion Durkheim: Structural-Functional Theory of Religion Three elementary forms of religion: 1. 3.

consolation. religion provides support. At the personal level.    . religion gives tradition a moral imperative. or community of believers. and reconciliation in times of need. Religious participation gives feeling of ―belongingness‖ which creates the moral community.Theoretical Perspectives on Religion Durkheim: Structural-Functional Theory of Religion The Functions of Religion: At the societal level.

Social change can foster change in society‘s religions.   .Theoretical Perspectives on Religion  Marx saw religion as an ―opiate of the Marx and Beyond: Conflict Theory and Religion masses.‖ Modern conflict theorists are more interested in how religion may contribute to or reduce conflicts between social groups. Focus on the dialectic—the contradictions between existing institutions that lead to social change.

Theoretical Perspectives on Religion Weber: Religion as an Independent Force  Weber combined ideas from structural and conflict perspectives. work. idleness and indulgence are sinful.  Changes in religious ideology can stimulate social change. and plain living are moral virtues.  Protestant Ethic: the belief that rationalism.  Religion is the search for knowledge about what is unknown. .  Charismatic leadership is influential.

‖ must a church require that all its members forsake wealth? How religions resolve these dilemmas is central to their eventual form and character. .e.. if ―it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God.Tension between Religion and Society Each religion confronts two contradictory yet complementary tendencies: 1) The tendency to reject the world 2) The tendency to compromise with the world i.

formal rituals . State church – strongly supported or mandated by the government Denomination – a church that accommodates the state and other churches Structure and function – formal bureaucracy. official creeds. and are an active part of society are called churches.Tension between Religion and Society Churches Religious organizations that are institutionalized. hierarchal positions. have endured for generations. are supported by and support society‘s norms and values.

Structure and function of sects: Membership is often the result of conversion or emotional experience.   Services are more informal than in churches. informal. .Tension between Religion and Society Sects Religious organizations that arise in active rejection of changes they find repugnant in churches are called sects. Doctrines emphasize ―otherworldly‖ rewards. scriptures considered literal and divine in origin. loyal. Like primary groups: small.

Structure and function of NRMs:  Strongly resemble those of sects Members elect to join NRM rather than follow parents‘ religion Attract people whose needs have not been met by mainstream religions. .Tension between Religion and Society New Religious Movements (NRMs) Religious or spiritual movements begun in recent decades and not connected to mainstream religions. also known as cults.

bureaucratic.S. and living a life of mission. and community . and inauthentic 2) an emphasis on informal rituals.Religion in the United States Trends in U. Religious Membership The Rise of Emerging Churches are linked by: 1) the belief that Americans and modern Christian churches are impersonal. faith. a more open perspective toward scripture and behavior.

Religion in the United States Trends in Religiosity  Religiosity is an individual‘s level of commitment to religious beliefs and to acting on those beliefs. . College graduates and non-graduates are equally likely to hold conservative religious beliefs.  Religious economy refers to the competition between religious organizations to provide better ―consumer products‖ thereby creating greater ―market demand‖ for their own products.

in  Religion and church can promote social  Church members don‘t always adopt the views of their church. supporting conservative political movements . sometimes this results in a split from the central church.Religion in the United States Consequences of Religiosity  People who are more religious tend to be: ◦ Healthier. happier and more satisfied with their lives – benefits from sense of belonging to a religious community ◦ More conservative in attitudes about family. change.

Civil Religion  Civil religion is the set of institutionalized  rituals. and freedom  . justice. ◦ Beliefs: The U. nation. and symbols sacred to the U.S.S. Important source of unity for the U.S. operates ―under God‖ ◦ Symbols: The flag ◦ Rituals: Pledge of Allegiance Singing of National Anthem Sacred principles: liberty.Religion in the United States U. beliefs.S.

Chapter 13 Politics and the Economy .

 Both should be considered when answering questions such as: ◦ How do people earn their living? ◦ Why are wages so much higher in some types of work and in some countries than others? ◦ How do government leaders get elected. but they are interwoven.Introducing Politics and the Economy  Politics and the economy are two separate social institutions. or assassinated? . deposed.

Charismatic Authority – the right to make decisions based on perceived extraordinary personal characteristics 3. Traditional Authority – the right to make decisions for others based on the sanctity of timehonored routines 2. Rational-Legal Authority – the right to base decisions on rationally established rules . 1. Power supported by norms and values that legitimate its use is authority.Power and Politics Coercion Authority The exercise of power through force or the threat of force is coercion.

Monarchies and patriarchies are classic examples. like that enjoyed by King Mohamed VI of Morocco.Power and Politics Traditional Authority Traditional authority. . In America in the 1950s. traditional families hold to this. exists when an individual‘s right to make decisions for others is widely accepted based on time-honored beliefs. Even today. husbands had the authority in the family (patriarchy).

Ron Hubbard founded the Church of Scientology and turned it into a large.  A charismatic leader who establishes a rationallegal system to manage her followers will also increase her power. L. bureaucratic organization.Power and Politics Combining Bases of Authority:  An elected official who adds charisma to his rational-legal authority will increase his power. ◦ Ex. ◦ Ex. . John McCain or Barack Obama can serve as examples.

Power and Politics Politics  Politics is the social structure of power within a society. the most prominent political institution is the state. claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of force and coercion within a territory. ◦ Political Institutions – concerned with the social structure of power.  The state is a social structure that successfully .

Its jurisdiction for legitimate decision making is broader than that of other institutions. 2.Power and the State The State The state is distinguished from other political institutions by two characteristics: 1. .It controls the use of legalized coercion in a society.

Power and the State The State Nationalism is the belief that the citizens of an areas are one people—a nation—united by a common culture and history. . A nation-state is a legally constituted state that bases its authority on public belief that it exists to benefit a nation‘s citizenry.

imprison and even kill citizens 2. Negotiate with other countries and use its military to attack and kill in other countries . Arrest. Take money from citizens with taxes and fines 3. State Coercion A state holds a monopoly on the legitimate use of three different types of coercion: 1. attack.Power and the State State Jurisdiction The state exercises power over society as a whole.

Some authoritarian governments.  military juntas. govern through traditional authority. such as monarchies.Power and the State State Coercion Political systems in which the leadership is not selected by the people and legally cannot be changed by them are authoritarian systems. and theocracies. dictatorships. others have no legitimate authority and rest their power almost exclusively on coercion. .  Also known as totalitarian states. monarchies.

Power and the State State Coercion Democracies are political systems that provides regular. constitutional opportunities for a change in leadership according to the will of the majority. which must negotiate with each other .  May occur in wealthier nations with a large middle class who have enough social and economic resources to organize effectively – can hold government accountable  May rise in countries with competing interest groups.

multinational corporations and international organizations hold power once held by states . With the current global economic crisis many nations are protecting themselves first—they have withdrawn from agreements that fostered globalization (i.Power and the State Globalization and State Power  Some argue that globalization has resulted in  Other theorists argue that globalization is not new.e. The power of the state is greater than ever.. import tax treaties).

and attending public school). Globalization has meant increasing immigration. may have no knowledge of their ‗home‘ culture. Immigrants who do not have citizenship face serious disadvantages: ◦ ineligible for legal employment    ◦ ineligible for social benefits ◦ face constant risk of deportation ◦ children of immigrants with no legal status.Power and the State Globalization and Citizenship Citizenship is a legal status conferring a broad range of rights (i. employment. voting.. owning property. Nations are debating citizenship for immigrants.e. and would face severe hardship if deported .

Democracy Structural-Functional: The Pluralist Model – for the good of all.Who Governs? Models of U. Focus on checks/balances within government Limits to the theory – interests of powerful wealthy coalesce.S. Programs designed to distribute wealth and rewards succeed only when elites favor change  Assumes the parts of the system run smoothly    .

S.S. Democracy Conflict: Power-Elite Model  Contends that a relatively unified elite group   makes all major decisions. . based on its own interests The power elite are the people who occupy the top positions in three bureaucracies—the military. industry.Who Governs? Models of U. citizens overall. and the executive branch of government—and who make decisions on national and international issues. The median net worth of members of Congress is 9x greater than of U.

S. key positions in economic/ social institutions Concentrated in fairly homogeneous elite Limited when other groups unite in opposition Distribution of power Limits of power Dispersed among competing groups Limited by shifting and crosscutting loyalties Role of State Arena where interest groups compete One of several sources of power .Comparison of U. depends on issue Inherited/positional. Political Models Characteristic Unit of analysis Pluralist Interest groups Power Elite Power elites Source of power Situational.

income.Individual Participation in U. . Government Who Votes? Characteristics influencing political participation: Social Class – people with more education. and prestigious jobs more likely  Age – middle aged/older persons more likely Race and Ethnicity – whites more likely than African Americans. hispanics and Asians least likely.S.

interests of industry and wealthy . social service. minorities ◦ Republicans associated with conservative morality.S. working class.Individual Participation in U.  As a result. whoever receives the most votes wins – ―winner take all‖ process.S. Government Which Party?  In the U. in practice two parties share almost all political power: Democrats and Republicans  Both parties are basically centrist with different philosophical views: ◦ Democrats associated with liberal morality.. tax cuts. interests of poor.

Individual Participation in U.S. Government
Why So Few Voters?

 Scholars suggest that Americans believe the  

political process is corrupt—the parties are similar and it doesn‘t matter who gets elected. Others suggest that politicians have made it difficult for people to vote. Still others argue that no major political party has involved poor minority and Americans are disenchanted (voting rates increased through grassroots outreach during Obama campaign).

Individual Participation in U.S. Government

 Ex-felon disenfranchisement: Loss of voting

Case Study: Ex-Felon Disenfranchisement

  

rights by those who have ever been convicted of a felony. In some states, it applies only to those in prison; in other states, it is lifelong. Ex-felon disenfranchised are overwhelmingly poor. The number is high enough to significantly decrease the chances of electing politicians who favor helping the poor.

Modern Economic Systems

 The economy includes all social structures
involved in the production and distribution of goods and services.

 There are basically two types of systems in
the modern world:

1. Capitalism
2. Socialism

 Because economic systems must adapt to
different political and natural environments, there are few instances of pure capitalism or pure socialism.

Modern Economic Systems

 The economic system based on competition in which most wealth (land, capital and labor) is private
  
property, to be used by its owners to maximize their own gain. Based on market competition. Encourages hard work, technical innovation, and meeting or creating consumer demand. Limitations:

1. Does not attend to distribution and does not provide for the public good. 2. Those who have neither labor nor capital lose out. 3. Public services such as parks, paved streets, sanitary water system hold no interest for capitalists because these generate no profit.

capital) are owned and managed by the community or government and used for the good of all.Modern Economic Systems  The economic system in which the means of  Social resources can benefit all society rather than  The key limitation is lack of incentive—socialist economies tend to be more equitable but less productive economies. . just those with wealth and access. Socialism production (land. labor. Socialism is often confused with communism: a theoretical political economic system where the means of production are publically owned and each individual works and is paid according to ability and need.

of capitalist and socialist economic structures..Modern Economic Systems Mixed Economies  Most Western societies today have a mixture  Vital services such as mail and industries such  Other services (i. partially socialized because societies judge the denial of such services to the poor unethical and the provision of such services from open market too inefficient. . health care) have been as steel might be socialized to ensure the continuation of services or availability of goods.e.

UK and Sweden: socialism / democracy China and Cuba: socialism / authoritarianism U.Modern Economic Systems The Political Economy within a nation  The interaction of political and economic forms  The term ―communist‖ refers to societies in  Both capitalism and socialism can coexist with either authoritarian or democratic systems. which a socialist economy is guided by a political elite and enforced by a military elite. Ex.S. and Japan: capitalism / democracy Saudi Arabia and Singapore: capitalism / autocracy .

Modern Economic Systems The Political Economy Privatization and the U. Political Economy Privatization refers to ―farming out‖ government services to corporations. . redesigning those services to fit a corporate mold. or redefining them as private choices rather than government responsibilities.S.

Economies shift from the primary to the secondary sector with industrialization. . The Postindustrial Economy environment. Preindustrial economies are characterized by these activities. billing services.e. Economic System  Primary sector extracts raw materials from the  Secondary sector processes raw materials into  Tertiary sector provides services for sale. physicians. short-order cooks.The U. goods for sale. hotel maids. schoolteachers.S. airlines. Postindustrial economies focus on the tertiary sector (i. police officers.. etc).

Economic System The Corporate Economy  While over 250.  At the local level. supported Guatemalan and Honduran dictatorships to protect interests of Dole and United Fruit.S. one major employer can hold municipal and county governments hostage in bargaining for tax advantages and favorable zoning regulations. transnational corporations.  Corporate power can influence U. U. foreign policy. .The U.S. Ex.000 businesses operate in the U. o most of the nation‘s capital and labor are tied up in a few giant..S.S.

The U.S. Economic System
The “Wal-Mart” Economy
it affects the entire U.S. economy.

 This corporation is so large and powerful that

 Until the 1980s, federal law prohibited
monopolies (a corporation that holds so large a market share for a given good/service that it controls the market).

 Wal-Mart earns profit selling cheap; both
suppliers and competitors are driven out of business if they fail to deliver goods at a cheap price. Suppliers shift to foreign labor markets to meet price demands. U.S. production suffers.

The U.S. Economic System

o o o

The Economy in Crisis
Economic trends of less regulation and more risk have created a system in crisis.
Over 1 million homes are in foreclosure.

 Because of globalization, the crisis has spread around the world with devastating effects.  The crisis strongly suggests that ―free-market‖
works only when balanced by government regulation.

Unemployment rates soar. Some pension funds and municipalities have gone bankrupt.

Work in the United States

 Professional occupations – specialized skills, autonomy, and public trust.  Non-professional occupations – require fewer

years of education, lack autonomy to set their own educational and licensing standards, and lack public confidence that they are motivated primarily by a code of ethics and a sense of service. Underground economy – associated with workers who attempt to hide from state regulation. Can occur in profession and non-professional occupations.

Work in the United States
Unemployment and Underemployment

 Unemployed are those who lack a job, are available for work, and are actively seeking it.  This definition leaves out people who have  Underemployed are those who cannot find fullgiven up looking for work and people who work part-time because they lost full-time jobs. time work or are working in jobs below their skill level. underestimated.

 Many argue that ―unemployment‖ levels are

e. . increase in monitoring. work at home and fluid work hours because of Internet. far more personal information in systems. hourly hires)  Changing economy: ◦ Shift to service jobs and declining prospects even for college graduates (although they still have less prospect of being unemployed than the non-degreed)  Impact of technology: ◦ Information technology jobs.Work in the United States  Precarious work: The Future of Work ◦ Shift toward jobs with little long-term stability (i.. contract work by year or month.

S.S.This approach adopted across the nation. goods more competitive by taxing imports and subsidizing domestic goods. make U. . build industries with good jobs. import manufactured products) ◦ Conservative approach: Free Market – proposes that the way to keep jobs in the U. ◦ Liberal approach: Government Policies – oversee corporate mergers. is to reduce wages and benefits. ◦ Social investment approach – stop high-education jobs from going overseas by adequately educating American students.S. Jobs materials.Work in the United States The Future of Work  Globalization and the Future: Globalization has led to a process of reverse development (export raw  Protecting U.

Chapter 14 Population and Urban Life .

. 2. and migration patterns. the world population is 7 billion— more than 2. deaths. and composition. Demographers focus on births. growth. Large and Small  Demography is the study of population—its    size. Currently.5x as many people as in 1950. Population has increased for two basic reasons: 1. Mortality has declined rapidly.Populations. Fertility rate has decreased only slowly.

 Birth rate – number of births per 1.  Fertility rate – number of births per 1.  Immigration – people move to a different country.000 women in a population in a given period.  Migration – movement of people from geographic area to another. Large and Small  Mortality rate – number of deaths per every 1.Populations.000 persons in a population in a given period.000 people in a population in a given period. .  Internal migration – people move to different homes within a country.

 World birth rate 2011: 20 births per 1000 people  World mortality rate 2011: 8 deaths per 1000  In 2011..  At this rate. another 2. . Most growth happens in poorer nations. i. Africa‘s population growing.Understanding Population Growth  Human population continues to grow every day.2%. Europe‘s population shrinking.6 billion people will be  added to the planet by 2025. world population grew by 1.e.

 About 25% to 33% of all babies died before 1  Infant mortality rate – the number of babies who die during or shortly after birth. Average life expectancy was 3035yrs pregnant or nursing and would produce between 6-10 children if she lived to 45. year of age.Understanding Population Growth Population in Former Times  Birth rates and mortality rates were about 40  The average women spent ages 20-45 per 1000 throughout most of human history. Populations were stable. .

Industrial Revolution changed work – no longer needed as many children for agricultural labor or to replace those that died. Demographic transition is the process through which a population shifts from a high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates.S. The late 1800s saw better sanitation and medical advances that improved life expectancy. hygiene. The results were a decline in mortality rates.Understanding Population Growth Demographic Transition in the West From the 1700s. and living    conditions improved in Europe and the U. . nutrition.

have increased in some areas due to AIDS. Demographic Transition in the NonWest  Now birth rates have declined and death rates . Death rates lowered but birth rates did not change – population rose. and Singapore improved living conditions – death rates decreased.Understanding Population Growth  Less developed nations: birth and death rates remained at preindustrial levels until 1900s. South  Korea. poorest countries had better sanitation and healthcare. Latter 20th century.  Development in Latin America. Taiwan.

Eventually birth rates also fell and population size stabilized. . As living conditions improved and death rates began to fall. both birth and death rates were high.Demographic Transition in the West In the preindustrial West. This is known as the demographic transition. the population grew.

sanitation systems. death rate: ~8 / 1000  Effects of Social Roles on the Fertility Rate:  Effects of High Fertility Rates on Society: Children are important in Ghana—women who do not bear children. Children are needed for agricultural and to care for aging parents. or adequate infrastructure cannot be maintained under such great population pressures.Population and Social Structure Ghana: Is Fertility Too High? Birth rate: ~31 / 1000. particularly sons. are not valued. education Schools. It is believed that that 4 children must be born for 2 to survive. .  Policy Response: contraception.

Italy: Is Fertility Too Low? The Effects of Low Fertility Rates on Society: Older generation is as large / larger than younger – aging work force.3 / 1000. immigration .1 per woman – replacement of parents and a bit to spare. Zero population growth is when fertility rate is about 2. Birth rate is 1. Policy Responses: birth incentives. Women‘s status is close to men‘s. Children are less necessary. ―graying‖ society.Population and Social Structure The Effects of Social Roles on Fertility Rates: Italian women are educated and many work. high social costs.

Population Change in Europe .

but top soils are soon eroded.Population and Social Problems Environmental Devastation: A Population Problem? Deforestation is devastating tropical rainforests in Brazil. Deforestation creates more land for food production. and elsewhere. Population pressures can contribute to numerous social problems including: ◦ environmental devastation ◦ overuse and misuse of resources ◦ poverty . the Philippines. leaving desert or barren rock.

Population and Social Problems Poverty in the Least Developed World   Poverty and malnutrition result from: ◦ war ◦ corruption ◦ inequality in nondemocratic countries ◦ exploitive world economic system Policy Responses: ◦ family-planning programs ◦ economic and educational development ◦ improving the status of women .

and religious differences in fertility rates. racial. . Mortality Rates  Average age at death is in the late 70s. Many  people who live to age 65 can expect to live another 20 years and more.Population in the United States Fertility Rates Zero population growth has been accompanied by sharp reductions in social class. This trend is more significant in African Americans and Latinos. AIDS remains leading cause of death in people aged 25-44.

Two groups of immigrants: 1) educated. is less attractive to immigrants. non-English speaking workers. . Because of the economic downturn. Englishspeaking professionals 2) Low skilled. immigration has declined slightly—the U.Population in the United States Migration patterns  Immigration accounts for an increase of about 1 million people per year.S. The Hispanic population has grown markedly in recent years.

Population If immigration and fertility rates remain stable. .The Changing U. the proportion of Hispanic and Asian Americans will likely increase and the proportion of non-Hispanic whites will likely decrease.S.

While some have been able to return. Since the 1970s. National economic conditions did not favor relocation. .Population in the United States Internal Immigration  In 2010. Hurricane Katrina drove about 1 million people from the New Orleans area. Many hurricane refugees sink into deeper poverty—many still living in ―temporary‖ mobile homes 7 years later. A case of internal migration: In 2005. internal migration was the lowest in 60  years. trends have been movement to the South and West from the Midwest and Northeastern states. the population of New Orleans remains 40% lower.

Population in the United States populations in cities. population lives in cities or metropolitan areas. .000 or more people.S.  1850 – only 2% world population lived in cities with 100.  Suburbanization is the growth of suburbs.  Urbanization is the process of concentrating  Suburbs are communities (primarily residential) that develop outside of cities.  Today – more than half the world population and over 80% of U.

Urbanization Theories of Urban Growth and Decline Structural Functional Theory: Urban Ecology:  Urban development is seen as evolutionary and functional. Competing economic and political forces lead to growth or decline of cities. Conflict Perspective: White Flight and Government Subsidies  Finds nothing natural in urban growth and decline. efficient for distributing goods and services. .

Urbanization The Nature of Modern Cities The Industrial City: Density of housing. retail. England 1950 The Postindustrial City: Move from secondary to tertiary production Easier communication and transportation Urban sprawl and edge cities . and manufacturing Central business district      Yorkshire.

000 or more in it.Urbanization Urbanization in the United States   A metropolitan statistical area is a county that has a city of 50. . plus associated neighboring counties.  Edge cities are suburban centers that have an existence largely separate from the cities that spawned them. A nonmetropolitan statistical area is a county that has no major city in it and is not closely tied to such a city.

peddlers.many cities are primarily government. . and beggars. and administrative centers – offer few workingclass jobs. schools.Urbanization Urbanization in the Less-Developed World  Problems: fast paced growth. sewers)  Differs from developed world: 1. inadequate infrastructure (roads. Unskilled become part of informal economy of artisans.high rate of births over deaths 2. trade.

It is more common in the more developed nations but is grown more rapidly in the less developed nations. SOURCE: United Nations 2010 .Urbanization Trends Around the World Urbanization is growing around the world.

theorists believe that individuals experience the city as a mosaic of small worlds that are manageable and knowable. heterogeneity.Place of Residence and Social Relationships Urban Living Theoretical Views: Earlier theorists viewed the greater size.   . Today. and density of urban living as leading to a breakdown of the normative and moral fabric of everyday life.

they are freed from the necessity of liking the people they live next to. They are selective with intimates. So many activities are within walking distance. In the city. Urban farming The decline of industrial cities like Detroit is being replaced by urban initiatives. .Urban living Many people enjoy the excitement of city life. homes. and businesses. Community gardens now stand on the sites once occupied by Victorian mansions.

crime. or estranged. Neighborhood integration – physical proximity is no longer a primary basis of intimacy. family and friends remain intimates. and higher cost of living. alienated. Many opt for suburbs and small towns. Quality of life – cities are exciting and convenient. They also have liabilities of noise.Place of Residence and Social Relationships Urban Living Realities of Urban Living: Social networks – no evidence that urban people    are disproportionately lonely. .

singles. car dependence 3. childless. social isolation crowded small lots. Suburban problems: 1.Place of Residence and Social Relationships Suburban Living Growth of suburbs. weak governments 2. and empty nesters .

Some are mostly white.Place of Residence and Social Relationships Small Towns and Rural Living About 17% of the nation‘s population lives in rural areas or small towns. and still others Hispanic. . Many rural families live in inexpensive trailers or manufactured homes. In desirable rural areas. good-paying jobs are scarce and housing expensive. others African American. Rural living ranges from the poorest to the wealthiest.