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# LED 30303MICROPROCESSOR BASED SYSTEM

CHAPTER 2:-

NUMBER SYSTEM
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O B J E C T I V E S

 Understand the concept of numbering and coding systems  Convert numbers in binary and hexadecimal into decimal equivalents and vice versa  Represent binary and hex numbers using the complement systems  Addition of binary numbers  Subtraction of binary numbers using complement systems  Perform multiplication and division of binary numbers  Logic Gates

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NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (1)

Human beings use base 10 (decimal) arithmetic

There are 10 distinct symbols, 0, 1, 2, …, 9

Computers use base 2 (binary) system

Decimal and Binary Number Systems

There are only 0 and 1  These two binary digits are commonly referred to as bits

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NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (2) Divide the decimal number by 2 repeatedly  Keep track of the remainders  Continue this process until the quotient becomes zero  Write the remainders in reverse order to obtain the binary number  Converting from Decimal to Binary (1) 4 .

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (2)  Ex.3:- Converting from Decimal to Binary (2) Note: it may not always be possible to obtain an exact equivalent of the fractional part of a number. The accuracy depend on the number of decimal places considered RESULT 5 . 2:-  Ex.

6 Note: it may not always be possible to obtain an exact equivalent of the fractional part of a number.NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (3) Know the weight of each bit in a binary number  Add them together to get its decimal equivalent  Converting from Binary to Decimal  Use the concept of weight to convert a decimal number to a binary directly  Ex. The accuracy depend on the number of decimal places considered .

the hexadecimal system. is used as a convenient representation of binary number  Hexadecimal System Ex. It is much easier to represent a string of 0s and 1s such as 100010010110 as its hexadecimal equivalent of 896H 7 .NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (4)  Base 16.

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (5)  To represent a binary number as its equivalent hexadecimal number  Start from the right and group 4 bits at a time. replacing each 4-bit binary number with its hex equivalent Converting between Binary and Hex (1)  To convert from hex to binary  Each hex digit is replaced with its 4-bit binary equivalent 8 .

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (5)  Ex 2:- Converting between Binary and Hex (2) 9 .

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (6) Convert to binary first and then convert to hex  Convert directly from decimal to hex by repeated division. keeping track of the remainders  Converting from Decimal to Hex (1) 10 .

2:-  Ex. The accuracy depend on the number of decimal places considered 11 .3:- Converting from Decimal to Hex (2) Note: it may not always be possible to obtain an exact equivalent of the fractional part of a number.NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (6)  Ex.

The accuracy depend on the number of decimal places considered 12 .NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (7) Convert from hex to binary and then to decimal  Convert directly from hex to decimal by summing the weight of all digits  Converting from Hex to Decimal  Ex:- Note: it may not always be possible to obtain an exact equivalent of the fractional part of a number.

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (8)  Adding the digits together from the least significant digits  If the result is less than 16. subtract 16 from it to get the digit and carry 1 to the next digit Addition of Hex Numbers 13 . write that digit as the sum for that position  If it is greater than 16.

borrow 16 from the preceding digit Subtraction of Hex Numbers 14 .NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (9)  If the second digit is greater than the first.

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (10)  The ASCII (pronounced “ask-E”) code assigns binary patterns for  Numbers 0 to 9  All the letters of English alphabet. uppercase and lowercase  Many control codes and punctuation marks  ASCII Code The ASCII system uses 7 bits to represent each code 15 .

:. Rules of Binary Addition BINARY ARITHMETIC  Binary Addition (1) Ex.(without carry) 16 .

(with carry) BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Addition (2) 17 . Ex.:.

:- Binary Subtraction 18 . Rules of Binary subtraction BINARY ARITHMETIC  Ex.

: 15510 = %1001 1011 0110 0100  2’s complement or radix-minus-two complement is obtain by inverting each bit of the binary number and then adding 1 to the least significant bit 19 e.g.g.: 15510 = %1001 1011 0110 0100 + 1 => 0110 0101 .Most microprocessor do not have a subtraction circuitry  It is possible to do the subtraction by using BINARY the complements ARITHMETIC  Two types: 1’s complement  2’s complement  Binary Subtraction using Complement (1)  1’s complement or radix-minus-one complement is obtain by inverting each bit of the binary number e.

:- BINARY ARITHMETIC  Binary Subtraction using Complement (2) Ex. Ex.:- 20 .

:- BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Subtraction using Complement (3) 21 . Ex.

 Ex.:- BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Subtraction using Complement (4) 22 .

BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Number 256 possible combination of eight bits. 23 .

 Rules of Binary multiplication BINARY ARITHMETIC  Ex.:- Binary Multiplication (1) Note: The rules of binary multiplication are the same as the truths of the AND gate 24 .

: Binary Multiplication (2) 25 .Another Method: Binary multiplication is the same as repeated binary addition.  Ex. add BINARY the multicand to itself the multiplier ARITHMETIC number of times.

 Ex.: Binary Division (1) 26 . just as in decimal division.BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary division is the repeated process of subtraction.

:- BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Division (2) 27 . Ex.

:- BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Division (3) 28 . Ex.

DIGITAL PRIMER Logic Gates (1) 29 .

DIGITAL PRIMER Logic Gates (2) 30 .

DIGITAL PRIMER Logic Gates (3) 31 .

THE END 32 .