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CHAPTER 2:-

NUMBER SYSTEM

1

O B J E C T I V E S

Understand the concept of numbering and coding systems Convert numbers in binary and hexadecimal into decimal equivalents and vice versa Represent binary and hex numbers using the complement systems Addition of binary numbers Subtraction of binary numbers using complement systems Perform multiplication and division of binary numbers Logic Gates

2

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (1)

**Human beings use base 10 (decimal) arithmetic
**

There are 10 distinct symbols, 0, 1, 2, …, 9

**Computers use base 2 (binary) system
**

Decimal and Binary Number Systems

There are only 0 and 1 These two binary digits are commonly referred to as bits

3

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (2) Divide the decimal number by 2 repeatedly Keep track of the remainders Continue this process until the quotient becomes zero Write the remainders in reverse order to obtain the binary number Converting from Decimal to Binary (1) 4 .

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (2) Ex.3:- Converting from Decimal to Binary (2) Note: it may not always be possible to obtain an exact equivalent of the fractional part of a number. The accuracy depend on the number of decimal places considered RESULT 5 . 2:- Ex.

6 Note: it may not always be possible to obtain an exact equivalent of the fractional part of a number.NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (3) Know the weight of each bit in a binary number Add them together to get its decimal equivalent Converting from Binary to Decimal Use the concept of weight to convert a decimal number to a binary directly Ex. The accuracy depend on the number of decimal places considered .

the hexadecimal system. is used as a convenient representation of binary number Hexadecimal System Ex. It is much easier to represent a string of 0s and 1s such as 100010010110 as its hexadecimal equivalent of 896H 7 .NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (4) Base 16.

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (5) To represent a binary number as its equivalent hexadecimal number Start from the right and group 4 bits at a time. replacing each 4-bit binary number with its hex equivalent Converting between Binary and Hex (1) To convert from hex to binary Each hex digit is replaced with its 4-bit binary equivalent 8 .

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (5) Ex 2:- Converting between Binary and Hex (2) 9 .

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (6) Convert to binary first and then convert to hex Convert directly from decimal to hex by repeated division. keeping track of the remainders Converting from Decimal to Hex (1) 10 .

2:- Ex. The accuracy depend on the number of decimal places considered 11 .3:- Converting from Decimal to Hex (2) Note: it may not always be possible to obtain an exact equivalent of the fractional part of a number.NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (6) Ex.

The accuracy depend on the number of decimal places considered 12 .NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (7) Convert from hex to binary and then to decimal Convert directly from hex to decimal by summing the weight of all digits Converting from Hex to Decimal Ex:- Note: it may not always be possible to obtain an exact equivalent of the fractional part of a number.

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (8) Adding the digits together from the least significant digits If the result is less than 16. subtract 16 from it to get the digit and carry 1 to the next digit Addition of Hex Numbers 13 . write that digit as the sum for that position If it is greater than 16.

borrow 16 from the preceding digit Subtraction of Hex Numbers 14 .NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (9) If the second digit is greater than the first.

NUMBERING AND CODING SYSTEMS (10) The ASCII (pronounced “ask-E”) code assigns binary patterns for Numbers 0 to 9 All the letters of English alphabet. uppercase and lowercase Many control codes and punctuation marks ASCII Code The ASCII system uses 7 bits to represent each code 15 .

:. Rules of Binary Addition BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Addition (1) Ex.(without carry) 16 .

(with carry) BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Addition (2) 17 . Ex.:.

:- Binary Subtraction 18 . Rules of Binary subtraction BINARY ARITHMETIC Ex.

: 15510 = %1001 1011 0110 0100 2’s complement or radix-minus-two complement is obtain by inverting each bit of the binary number and then adding 1 to the least significant bit 19 e.g.g.: 15510 = %1001 1011 0110 0100 + 1 => 0110 0101 .Most microprocessor do not have a subtraction circuitry It is possible to do the subtraction by using BINARY the complements ARITHMETIC Two types: 1’s complement 2’s complement Binary Subtraction using Complement (1) 1’s complement or radix-minus-one complement is obtain by inverting each bit of the binary number e.

:- BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Subtraction using Complement (2) Ex. Ex.:- 20 .

:- BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Subtraction using Complement (3) 21 . Ex.

Ex.:- BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Subtraction using Complement (4) 22 .

BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Number 256 possible combination of eight bits. 23 .

Rules of Binary multiplication BINARY ARITHMETIC Ex.:- Binary Multiplication (1) Note: The rules of binary multiplication are the same as the truths of the AND gate 24 .

: Binary Multiplication (2) 25 .Another Method: Binary multiplication is the same as repeated binary addition. Ex. add BINARY the multicand to itself the multiplier ARITHMETIC number of times.

Ex.: Binary Division (1) 26 . just as in decimal division.BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary division is the repeated process of subtraction.

:- BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Division (2) 27 . Ex.

:- BINARY ARITHMETIC Binary Division (3) 28 . Ex.

DIGITAL PRIMER Logic Gates (1) 29 .

DIGITAL PRIMER Logic Gates (2) 30 .

DIGITAL PRIMER Logic Gates (3) 31 .

THE END 32 .

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