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LEARNING AND THE LEARNER

GROUP 4
BY SHAZWINA SHAMIEN BINTI ABDUL BASIT WAN AMIR ISKANDAR BIN ISMADI

Question
• Analyze the basic principles of behaviorist theory (classical conditional and operant conditioning) using PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting). Discuss the implications of behaviorist theory in learning and teaching of children with special with special needs by using graphic organizer.

WHAT IS PMI…?
• A brainstorming activity that encourages participants in a discussion to look at an idea from more than one viewpoint • Developed by Dr. Edward de Bono

Two main types of Learning
• Classical conditioning: addresses learning of involuntary responses. For example when the sound of a bell alone stimulates saliva flow in dogs. • Operant conditioning: addresses learning of voluntary responses.

4

PMI (PLUS, MINUS, INTERESTING)
PLUS • Easily controlled by teachers • Some learners benefit from repetition MINUS • Ignores thought processes and emotion • Repetition may become boring INTERESTING • Useful in experience under laboratory conditions where behavior can be observed

• Rewards or punishment
are clear • Ease at motivation • Focused only of behavior that that can be observed and manipulated.

• Totally teacher orientated
• Little or no input from learners • Doesn’t count for processes taking place in the mind that can’t be observed (concrete

and manipulated
• Principles of behaviorism have been tested mainly on animals such findings may not apply totally to human behaviorism

things)

PMI (PLUS, MINUS, INTERESTING)
PLUS • Positive and negative reinforcement to maintain or get rid of MINUS • Passive student learning • Teacher - centric environment • One size fits all INTERESTING • Looks at observable behavior what a person does rather than what a

habits.
• Observable behavior can be measured which can infer what changes have occurred

• Knowledge itself is given and
absolute • Programmed instruction • Reinforcements may backfires • Children may be reliant on rewards for desired behaviors • May not work well for all subjects • Some changes involves with internal changes which can’t be observable directly(cognitive)

person does rather than
what a person thinks, feels, imagines • Concepts like writing, which require students to analyze and interpret information might not benefit from this approach

IMPLICATIONS OF BEHAVIOURIST THEORY IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

DEFINITION AND EXAMPLES
• Special needs children are described as individuals who require assistance for disabilities that may be medical, mental, or psychological.

EXAMPLE: • Autism, serious emotional and behavioral disturbances, mental retardation, ADHD, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, feeding and eating disorders, etc….
LA Parent Helpline

Direct teacher cantered instruction result (drills)
Classroom is manageable

Teachers would check students’’ work regularly

Skills and information are break down into smaller units (easier, focused learning)

IMPLICATIONS

Students is taught best when focus is directly on content

Students learn what behaviours are appropriate or not

Operant conditionings used to reward / punish students which are misbehaved or behave (built a habit that the students is comfortable with

Final Thoughts
• Pros:
– Behaviorism is based on observable behaviors, making it easier to conduct and collect data and research. – Can be applicable/helpful for therapy of children with behavioral disorders

• Cons:
– Does not account for other ways of learning that do no involve positive/negative reinforcement – People can change their behavior when presented with new information, even if they have previously established a different behavior through reinforcement

REFERENCES
• Atherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Behaviourism [On-line: UK] retrieved 16 July 2013 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/behaviour.htm • Goldman, J. A. (2010, Dec 8). Child Development Theories. Retrieved from education.com: http://www.education.com/reference/article/childdevelopment-changing-theories/?page=2 • Husin, K. H. (2010). Psikologi Pembelajaran. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications and Distributors Sdn Bhd. • Jarem, S. (n.d.). Behaviourism as a Learning Theory. Retrieved from Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/sarahjarem/behaviorism-in-theclassroom • Keow, C. L. (2008). Murid dan Alam Belajar. Kuala Lumpur: Kumpulan Budiman Sdn Bhd.