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Airlocks

Field Operator Certification
Airlocks

Airlocks

Lesson Objectives
1. State the purpose of Airlocks

2. State the different types of Airlocks used in cement manufacturing
3. Explain the principle of operation for each type of Airlock

4. State the applications for Airlocks in cement manufacturing
5. Describe the running & static inspections for each type of Airlock 6. Describe the troubleshooting for common Airlock problems 7. Identify safety hazards associated with the operation of Airlocks 8. Perform running & static inspections on Airlocks (OJT)
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Airlocks

Objective 1 - Purpose

To control the flow of solids & fluids from one process stream to another.

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Airlocks

Objective 2 – Types of Airlocks

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Airlocks

Objective 2 – Types of Airlocks


 

Rotary Valves Tipping / Gate Obturator Valves Pneumatic Pinch Valves

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Rotary Valve

Cast iron machined casing within which multi vane rotor revolves Tight tolerances between rotor & casing are critical in maintaining proper seal Material introduced into Rotary Valve through an inlet flange located on top

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Rotary Valve (cont’d)

As rotor vanes pass loading point, material falls by gravity into exposed rotor pockets
As rotor & material pass loading point, individual pockets become sealed against machined rotor casing

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Rotary Valve (cont’d)

  

Material evacuated from bottom of Rotary Valve once pockets pass into open discharge point Material falls by gravity through discharge flange into downstream equipment Rotary Valve can be driven at constant speed for continuous evacuation of material at controlled rate Can also be driven at variable speeds allowing Rotary Valve to be used as material feeder

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Rotary Valve (cont’d)

Visualize the operation of revolving doors commonly used in hotels & other building entrances Principle of operation is the same “controlled flow of solids & fluids from one stream to another” People enter or exit building while at the same time reduce energy losses associated with heating or air conditioning

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation – Tipping Valves

Fabricated or cast body with an inlet & outlet flange connected between two process streams

Between the two flanges, internal gate is used to control flow of material between two streams

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Tipping Valves (cont’d)

 

Material gate commonly fixed to pivoting shaft supported by bearing assembly at each end Material introduced into Tipping Valve through inlet flange Material accumulates above gate until either mechanical drive forces gate open, or mass of material above gate overcomes externally mounted counterweight which in turn forces gate to open

 In both cases material is released through Tipping Valves
discharge flange into downstream equipment

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Tipping Valves (cont’d)

Those with mechanical drives are commonly open for predetermined period of time or until ideal material level is achieved Those using external counterweight open only long enough to release enough material to reset counterweight 2 commonly used in series to ensure proper Airlock

 One of 2 gates remains

closed at all times ensuring positive seal between 2 streams

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Tipping Valves (cont’d)

Visualize the operation of double doors commonly used in shopping malls & other building entrances

Principle of operation is the same - “controlled flow of solids & fluids from one stream to another” People enter or exit building with doors closing behind them before doors are opened ahead
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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Obturator Valve

Consists of 2 molded & prestressed elastomer diaphragms connected together at sides & inlet flange Open area at bottom adjusted by 2 positioning rods that ensure proper orientation of side diaphragms Absence of material, negative static pressure of upstream vessel forces 2 diaphragms together creating tight seal, isolating upper & lower streams

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Obturator Valve (cont’d)

Material introduced into closed valve & it accumulates until it creates “material seal” between upper & lower streams
pressure above

 Diaphragm valve relaxes  no longer exposed to negative static


Material evacuated until seal is lost & valve is forced closed Obturator Valve can only be used in applications where upper process stream is under negative pressure

 Common applications are Dust Collectors & Cyclones

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Pneumatic Pinch Valves

2 piece cast iron body with integrated flanges on both ends Contained within 2 piece body is gum rubber tube insert with integrated flanges on both ends Insert flanges match casting flanges for an effective air seal within valve casing

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Pneumatic Pinch Valves (cont’d)

Commonly installed in round duct between 2 process streams to provide isolation & or flow control similar to installation of Tipping Valve or Rotary Valve
To provide isolation, compressed air is introduced into void between 2 piece assembled casting & gum rubber insert

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Pneumatic Pinch Valves (cont’d)

As pressure is increased from atmospheric to typically 50 psi, rubber tube insert is forced to collapse within casting
Collapsed insert creates a seal between upper & lower process streams isolating the two from one another

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Airlocks

Principle of Operation Pneumatic Pinch Valves (cont’d)

  

Typical configuration - operation controlled by level detectors in process stream When target level is reached, compressed air vented from Pinch Valve & rubber tube opens (material flows) Once level detectors clear, Pinch Valve closes, isolating system Pinch Valve can be configured for flow control by applying variable pressure through controller to Pinch Valve

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Airlocks

Objective 5 - Applications
Rotary Valves
   

Tipping / Gate Valves
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Obturator Valves
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Pneumatic Pinch Valves
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Dust Collectors Cyclones Feeders Pneumatic Transport

Dust Collectors Cyclones Clinker Cooler Under Grate Compartments Gravel Bed Filters Vertical Roller Mill Feed & Rejects Chute HES Rejects Chutes

Dust Collectors Cyclones

Dust Collectors Cyclones Slurry Flow Control

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Airlocks

Objective 6 - Inspections

Running Inspection…

 Rotary Valves  Tipping Valves  Obturator Valves  Pinch Valves

Static Inspection …

 Rotary Valves  Tipping Valves  Obturator Valves  Pinch Valves

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Airlocks

Objective 7 - Troubleshooting
Rotary Valves

Tipping / Gate Valves

Obturator Valves

Pneumatic Pinch Valves

  

 

Rotary Valve will not start Noisy drive Valve noisy Packing seals leaking Bearings noisy Product will not discharge

 

 

Valve will not operate Valve not sealing properly Noisy drive Valve operation is noisy Bearings noisy Valve will not discharge product

Valve will not seal Valve will not discharge product

Pinch Valve will not isolate material flow Material does not evacuate from Pinch Valve

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Airlocks

Objective 8 - Safety
  

Mechanically driven Airlocks can start & stop automatically Casing & internal material temps can be extremely hot External Tipping Valve arms can be under extreme pressure from material above valve

 Creates pinch point in many applications

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Airlocks

Objective 8 – Safety (cont’d)
   

Inspect all guards for damage & support integrity regularly Never attempt to remove build-up off components while in operation Keep clothing, fingers, hair, & other parts of body away from drive components Report all unsafe conditions or practices immediately

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Airlocks

Lesson Review

What is the purpose of an Airlock?

 To control the flow of solids & fluids from one process
stream to another

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Airlocks

Lesson Review

List 4 types of Airlocks commonly found in cement manufacturing
1. Rotary Valves 2. Tipping Valves – Gravity, Pneumatic, Hydraulic, Motor Driven 3. Pinch Valves 4. Obturator Valves

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Airlocks

Lesson Review

Describe the unique limitation to the application of an Obturator Valve

 Can only be used in applications where the upper
process stream is under negative pressure  Common applications are Dust Collectors & Cyclones

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Airlocks

Lesson Review

What real world application best illustrates the operation of a Rotary Valve, and why?

 Rotary Valve concept can be visualized in the real world
through the operation of revolving doors commonly used in hotels & other building entrances  Principle of operation is the same - “the controlled flow of solids & fluids from one stream to another”  In this case people entering or exiting the building while at the same time reducing energy losses associated with heating or air conditioning
Field Operator Certification 13/02/2014

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Airlocks

Lesson Review

What real world application best illustrates the operation of a Tipping Valve, and why?

 Tipping Valve concept can be visualized in the real world
through the operation of double doors commonly used in shopping malls & other building entrances  The principle of operation is the same - “the controlled flow of solids & fluids from one stream to another”  In this case people entering or exiting the building with doors closing behind them before the doors are opened ahead

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Airlocks

Lesson Review

How does a pinch valve control the flow of solids and fluids between two streams?

The pinch valve uses compressed air to collapse the
insert within the valve body isolating the two streams from one another.

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Airlocks

Lesson Review

State 5 common applications for Airlocks in cement manufacturing.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Pulse Jet Dust Collectors Cyclones Gravel Bed Filters Cooler Under Grate Compartments Pneumatic Transport Raw VRM Feed and Rejects Chutes Fuel Mill Feed Chute HES Separator Rejects
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Airlocks

Lesson Review

Describe 5 inspection points for each of the 4 types of Airlocks described in this module

 As per Inspection information

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Airlocks

Lesson Review

Describe 3 conditions that could explain why product would not discharge from a Rotary Valve

 As per Troubleshooting information

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Airlocks

Lesson Review

Describe 3 conditions that could explain why a Pinch Valve would not isolate a material flow

 As per Troubleshooting information

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Airlocks

Lesson Review

Describe 3 safety hazards associated with any of the Airlocks described in this module

 As per Safety information

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