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# ABSTRACT:  This tutorial article discusses some basic issues in the design of control systems.

 The concepts of well posedness and total stability are introduced to deal with noise and disturbance problems.  The implementable transfer function is developed and is shown to solve completely pole-and-zero assignment and model matching problems. Two feedback configurations are introduced to realize the implementable transfer functions, and feedback compensation is obtained by solving sets of linear algebraic equations.

When the open-loop plant transfer function has been specified, there are basically two approaches to carry out design.  In the first approach, we choose a feedback configuration and compensation with undetermined parameters and then adjust the parameters so that the resulting closed-loop system will meet design specifications. The root-locus and frequency-domain methods are ways to evaluate the adjustments used in this approach. In the second approach, we choose an overall closed-loop system to meet design specifications.  We then choose an appropriate feedback configuration and compute the required compensation.  The linear quadratic optimal control method and design through pole-zero pattern are examples of the second approach . We call the first approach the outward approach and the second the inward approach.

this choice is not entirely arbitrary  In this paper.  Once an implementable overall transfer function is chosen. In the inward approach. Because of physical constraints. properness of compensators. the next step is to choose a control configuration . the first step is to choose an overall closed-loop transfer function to meet a set of specifications. we introduce four constraints on the choice of the overall transfer function: namely. well posedness. total stability. and no plant leakage.  An overall transfer function that can be implemented under these four constraints is called an implementable transfer function  The implementable transfer functions shown to solve pole-and-zero assignment and model matching problems.

However. unity feedback can be used to achieve arbitrary pole assignment. We then introduce two more sophisticated configurations. the twoparameter and the plant input/output (I/O) feedback configurations. . which can be used to achieve pole assignment and zero assignment simultaneously: namely. The compensators are obtained by solving sets of linear algebraic equations.

2)] The problem is to design an overall closed loop system such that the plant output yet will track a reference input r(t). As can be seen. the plant transfer function is unstable and has a non minimumphase zero. Indeed.Example and Issues First. G(s) = (s . If the inward approach is used. if an overall transfer function is unity.I)/[s(s . then the plant output is identical to any reference input. This is a difficult problem if the root-locus method or frequency-domain method is used to carry out the design. Consider the plant with the open-loop transfer function G(s). we will use an example to illustrate the issues that may arise in the design of control systems. It is clear that an overall transfer function of unity is the best possible system we can design. then the first step is to select an overall closedloop transfer function. .

Therefore. The calculations to obtain a realistic transfer function may be carried out by computer simulation using existing computer aided design packages. and the rise time. the control system would be unnecessary Of course. and overshoot are also all zero.the position and velocity errors are zero. settling time. Therefore. otherwise. . Note that. for a unity transfer function. the power levels at the reference input and plant output are different. no other transfer function can perform better than a transfer function of unity. a more realistic overall transfer function must be chosen. a transfer function of unity usually cannot be implemented in practice because we must use pure differentiators as compensator The actuating control signal may get very large. causing the plant to saturate.

General Control System Disturbance Controlle d Signal Manipulate d Variable Set-point or Reference input + - Error + Controller Actuator + + + Process Actual Output Feedback Signal Sensor .

the actuator and the sensor 6. Identify the variables to control 3. then finalize design . Obtain a model of the process. Establish control goals 2. then iterate the configuration and actuator 5. Describe a controller and select key parameters to be adjusted 7. Optimize the parameters and analyze the performance If the performance meet the specifications. Write the specifications for the variables 4. Establish the system configuration and identify the actuator If the performance does not meet specifications.Control System Design Process 1.

Examples .

(b) The driver uses the difference between the actual and the desired direction of travel to generate a controlled adjustment of the steering wheel.(a) Automobile steering control system. (c) Typical direction-of-travel response .

Process – The device. plant. Control System – An interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired response.System – An interconnection of elements and devices for a desired purpose. The input and output relationship represents the cause-andeffect relationship of the process. or system under control. .

i. System output iii. System input ii.• The interaction is defined in terms of variables. Environmental disturbances .

• A control system is an interconnection of components forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response.Control System • Control is the process of causing a system variable to conform to some desired value. Output Signal Input Signal Control System Energy Source . • Manual control Automatic control (involving machines only).

Closed-Loop Control Systems utilizes feedback to compare the actual output to the desired output response. Multivariable Control System .Open-Loop Control Systems utilize a controller or control actuator to obtain the desired response.

Control System Classification Missile Launcher System Open-Loop Control System .

Control System Classification Missile Launcher System Closed-Loop Feedback Control System .

. If you use design a machine. i. then you have built an automatic control system. • For example.Manual Vs Automatic Control • Control is a process of causing a system variable such as temperature or position to conform to some desired value or trajectory. or use a computer to do it. If you are driving the car yourself. driving a car implies controlling the vehicle to follow the desired path to arrive safely at a planned destination. called reference value or trajectory. ii. you are performing manual control of the car.

Control System Classification Desired Output Respons e Controller Process Output Variable s Measurement Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) System .

Remote Control • Robotic arm used to pick up radioactive materials iii. Power Amplification (Gain) • Positioning of a large radar antenna by low-power rotation of a knob ii. Convenience of Input Form • Changing room temperature by thermostat position iv. Compensation for Disturbances • Controlling antenna position in the presence of large wind disturbance torque .Purpose of Control Systems i.

Human System The Vetruvian Man .

Adrenaline Automatically generated to increase the heart rate and oxygen in times of flight iii. Hand Pick up an object and place it at a predetermined location v. Temperature Regulated temperature of 36°C to 37°C .Human System i. Eye Follow moving object iv. Pancreas Regulates blood glucose level ii.

Actuators • Converts the control signal to a power signal iii. Sensors • Provides measurement of the system output iv. System. plant or process • To be controlled ii. Reference input • Represents the desired output .Control System Components i.

General Control System Disturbance Controlle d Signal Manipulate d Variable Set-point or Reference input + - Error + Controller Actuator + + + Process Actual Output Feedback Signal Sensor .