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Engineering How To

How to size a pump
R Stradley, PE

How to size a pump
 Pump sizing is one of the things you need to

know as a Mechanical Engineer.

How to size a pump
 Pump sizing is one of the things you need to

know as a Mechanical Engineer.  This is something I didn’t learn as a student, but wish I had.

How to size a pump
 Process System Data  Flow calculations  Pump Catalog

How to size a pump
 Process System Data  Flow calculations  Pump Catalog

 Where to go for help

How to size a pump
 Where to go for help
 Books

How to size a pump
 Where to go for help  Books

Crane Technical Paper 410

How to size a pump
 Where to go for help  Books

Crane Technical Paper 410  Practical fluid flow & friction loss calculation handbook  $45 electronic, www.tp410.com  $85 hardcover, www.Amazon.com

How to size a pump
 Where to go for help  Books

Crane Technical Paper 410 Assorted pump handbooks

How to size a pump
 Where to go for help  Books

Crane Technical Paper 410 Assorted pump handbooks  Don’t bother with a pump handbook unless  You run into special conditions or fluids  You want to become a specialist  You have a driving need to know why

How to size a pump
 Where to go for help  Books

Crane Technical Paper 410 Assorted pump handbooks

 For basic information, use the net.

How to size a pump
 Where to go for help
 Books  Websites
 www.lightmypump.com

Lots of good basic pump & system info. Includes descriptions and videos of pumps that can be understood by the average maintenance man or supervisor. Lots of good engineering pump information. Designed for the junior engineer by a PhD, so it includes a lot of formulas and descriptions. Internet Glossary of Pumps - Over 60 Illustrations (some are animated) of Various Pumps With Brief Descriptions A web site that offers a number of very useful calculators and conversion utilities. It is sponsored by Pumps & Systems magazine.

 www.pumped101.com/index.html

 www.animatedsoftware.com/pumpglos/pumpglos.htm

 www.pumpcalcs.com

How to size a pump
 Where to go for help  Books  Websites  Gurus

Guru - practical
 Jacques Chaurette, P. Ing  Professional Engineer from

Montreal Canada with many years of practical ME and pump experience.  Author of the lightmypump.com web site.  Ask the Pump Forum any pump question you like.  Email jchaurette@lightmypump.com

Guru - technical
 Joe Evans, PHD, biophysics.  Contributing Editor of Pumps

& Systems Magazine  Author of the www.Pumped101.com website  He is passionate about the sharing of knowledge and its  This forum is more technical. ability to replace memorization  Includes a 55 point thread with understanding discussing the limitations of k factors in Crane TP 410  E-mail – joeeevans@gmail.com

Guru - troubleshooting
 Larry the Pump Guy  Professional Pump

Troubleshooter for Bachus Inc  Contributing editor for Flow Control magazine  Larry Bachus
 30 years of experience in

industrial pumps  Expert in diagnosing pump problems and seal failures

 Email - larry@bachusinc.com

Larry Bachus (The "Pump Guy") demonstr ates the principles of NPSHr vs. NPSHa at a recent Pump Guy Seminar.

How to size a pump
 Types of pumps

Centrifugal

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, vertical split inline

How to size a pump
 Types of pumps

Centrifugal
 

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, vertical split inline Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump,

How to size a pump
 Types of pumps

Centrifugal
  

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, vertical split inline Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump, Horizontal split case Vertical split case,

How to size a pump
 Types of pumps

Centrifugal
   

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, vertical split inline Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump, Horizontal split case Vertical split case, ANSI standard or API 610

Centrifugal pumps

Source: Manufacturers

How to size a pump
 Types of pumps  Centrifugal

  

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump, Horizontal split case Vertical split case, vertical Taco ANSI standard or API 610

Positive displacement  Rotary gear pump, progressive cavity, diaphragm pump, Hose [peristaltic] pump

How to size a pump
 Types of pumps  Centrifugal

  

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump, Horizontal split case Vertical split case, vertical Taco ANSI standard or API 610

Positive displacement  Rotary gear pump, progressive cavity, diaphragm pump, Hose [peristaltic] pump  Piston pump, rotary lobe pump, rotating disc, nutating disc

How to size a pump
 Types of pumps  Centrifugal

  

End suction, jet pump, multi-stage vertical turbine, Self priming pump, chopper pump, slurry pump, Horizontal split case Vertical split case, vertical Taco ANSI standard or API 610

Positive displacement  Rotary gear pump, progressive cavity, diaphragm pump, Hose [peristaltic] pump  Piston pump, rotary lobe pump, rotating disc, nutating disc  Specialty use – chemical drum pumps, low flow medical pumps, metering pumps, fuel pumps

Positive Displacement Pumps

Source: Manufacturers

Major pump parts & terminology
 Centrifugal Pump Parts.  The suction is the flow inlet  The discharge is the flow outlet.  The volute is the helical outer casing.  The impeller is the rotating disk with curved vanes inside the volute.  Where suction and impeller meet is the eye.

Major pump parts & terminology
 Impeller.

Impeller consists of a back plate, vanes If the vanes are closed it will have a front plate or shroud. Wear rings, back vanes and balancing holes.

How does a centrifugal pump work?
 imparts energy to a fluid using

acceleration (not centrifugal force)  transforms mechanical (rotational) energy into hydraulic energy.  slings fluid from center of the impeller to the vanes’ outer edge, increasing its velocity.  When the fluid reaches the volute, velocity is transformed into pressure.

How to size a pump
 Data needed to size the pump
  

Flow rate – peak and average flow Specific gravity Total head  Also called total dynamic head [TDH]

How to size a pump
 Flow rate (GPM or L/S)  Pumps are sized for the largest consumer

Home:  Biggest consumer: bathtub ~10 gpm (0.6 L/s).

How to size a pump
 Flow rate (GPM or L/S)  Pumps are sized for the largest consumer  Home:

Industry:  Tank fill rate: ~ 100 gpm (6.3 L/s)

How to size a pump
 Flow rate (GPM or L/S)  Pumps are sized for the largest consumer
 

Home: Industry:  Tank fill rate: ~ 100 gpm (6.3 L/s)  Process cooling to a heat exchanger ~1000 gpm (63 L/s)

How to size a pump
 Flow rate (GPM or L/S)  Pumps are sized for the largest consumer  Home:

Industry:  Tank fill rate: ~ 100 gpm (6.3 L/s)  Process cooling to a heat exchanger ~1000 gpm (63 L/s)  Utility equipment: 5000 gpm (315 L/s)

How to size a pump
 Flow rate (GPM or L/S)  Pumps are sized for the largest consumer
 

Home: Industry:  Tank fill rate: ~ 100 gpm (6.3 L/s)  Process cooling to a heat exchanger ~1000 gpm (63 L/s)  Utility equipment: 5000 gpm (315 L/s)  may depend on some interaction between processes that needs to be carefully analyzed.

How to size a pump
 Specific gravity

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump
 Total Head is

the height to which a pump can move a fluid at zero flow

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump
 Total Head is

the height to which a pump can move a fluid at zero flow total static head pressure head velocity head friction head loss.


 

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump
 Total Static Head

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump
 Pressure Head  Can be significant on its own  Can be insignificant or part of total static head

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump
 Velocity Head
   

Normally it zeros back to pressure at end state Significant when calculating intermediate states Calculated as H = V2/2G Is estimated as part of friction flow using a discharge coefficient

How to size a pump
 Friction Head Loss calculation  Where Crane TP 410 is used  Programs available on-line & on-disk

Source: Crane TP 410

How to size a pump
 Friction Head Loss calculation  Where Crane TP 410 is used  Programs available on-line & on-disk  Watch out for boundary conditions & assumptions  Viscosity  Specific gravity  Vapor pressure  Transition flow and Reynolds number  Multiphase flow  Suspended multi-solids  Non-Newtonian fluids like Thixotropics  Shear sensitive fluids  Compressibility & supercompressibility  Cryogenics

How to size a pump
 Friction Head Loss calculation  Where Crane TP 410 is used  Programs available on-line & on-disk  Watch out for boundary conditions & assumptions  Viscosity  Specific gravity  Vapor pressure  Transition flow and Reynolds number  Multiphase flow  Suspended multisolids  Non-Newtonian fluids like Thixotropics  Shear sensitive fluids  Compressibility & supercompressibility  Cryogenics  Always perform a manual SANITY check!

Cross check
 Friction Head Loss  Rules of thumb:  Middle of range  Velocity = 7-10 fps  Δ P = 1 - 3 psi/100

Source: Crane TP 410

Friction head loss - Moody
 Friction Head Loss

Source: Crane TP 410

How to size a pump

Source: Gouldspumps.com

Source: Gouldspumps.com

Source: Gouldspumps.com

Source: Gouldspumps.com

Source: Gouldspumps.com

Pump Characteristic Curve

 Pump Curve:  A graphical representation of the pump Total Head vs.

flow.  It predicts how the pump will perform at different flow rates.  Note the BEP at 74%
Source: lightmypump.com

System curve

 System Curve:  A graphical representation of the system Total Head vs. flow

curve  Predicts system performance at different flow rates.  Note: it is a parabolic W2 function
Source: lightmypump.com

 The intersection of the system curve with the characteristic

curve defines the operating point of the pump.

Source: lightmypump.com

Pump Characteristic Curve

System Curve Changes

System & Pump Curves Age

How to size a pump: Exercise 1
 Find:  @ 300 GPM  TDH = ___  Eff = _____  BHP = ___
   

@ 500 GPM TDH = ___ Eff = _____ BHP = ___

How to size a pump: Exercise 1
 Pump curve
       

300 GPM TDH = 260 Eff = 69 BHP = 27 500 GPM TDH = 200 Eff = 60 BHP = 36

How to size a pump: Exercise 2
 Generate a system curve for the following:  Ignore entrance, exit, elbow and velocity losses  Design flow is 400 GPM +/- 100 in a 6 inch pipe.

Source: Goulds GPM

How to size a pump-Exercise 2
            

6 inch pipe @300 GPM DP= ___ psi/100 DP=2.31*___=___ft/100 DP=___*1000/100=____ft @400 GPM DP= ___ psi/100 DP=2.31*___=___ft/100 DP=___*1000/100=____ft @500 GPM DP= ___ psi/100 DP=2.31*___=___ft/100 DP=___*1000/100=____ft

How to size a pump-Exercise 2
            

6 inch pipe @300 GPM DP= 0.275 psi/100 DP=2.31*0.275=0.635 ft/100 DP=0.635*1000/100=6.35 ft @400 GPM DP=0.471 psi/100 DP=2.31*0.471=1.09 ft/100 DP=1.09*1000/100=10.9 ft @500 GPM DP= 0.72 psi/100 DP=2.31*0.72=1.66 ft/100 DP=1.66*1000/100=16.6 ft

How to size a pump: Exercise 2

How to size a pump: Exercise 3
 The plant has this spare 2x3x13 pump with a 20 HP

motor. Will it work for the system in exercise 2?

How to size a pump: Exercise 3
 The plant has this spare 2x3x13 pump with a 20 HP

motor. Will it work for the system in exercise 2?

How to size a pump: Exercise 4
 For 2x3x13

pump for conditions from exercise 2  Find:  Speed= ___  BHP=____

How to size a pump: Exercise 4
 For 2x3x13

pump for conditions from exercise 2  Find:  Speed= 1900  BHP=25

How to size a pump: Exercise 5
 For constant

speed 3x4 pump at 1775 rpm same conditions

 Find wheel

size  Dia=____  BHP=___  EFF=____

How to size a pump: Exercise 5
 For constant

speed 3x4 pump at 1775 rpm same conditions

 Find wheel

size  Dia=11.5  BHP=22  EFF=67

How to size a pump: pick type

Source: Gouldspumps.com

How to size a pump – other factors
 Location  Available space  Maintenance access  At least 30 inches around

How to size a pump – other factors
 Location  Available space  Maintenance access  At least 30 inches around  Bad design  End effects on inlet

and outlet  Takes up too much space

How to size a pump – other factors
 Location  Available space  Maintenance access  Vertical split case

How to size a pump – other factors
 Location  Available space  Maintenance access  Vertical in line

How to size a pump – other factors
   

Location Available space Maintenance access Reliability

How to size a pump – other factors
   

Location Available space Maintenance access Reliability

Quality

How to size a pump – other factors
   

Location Available space Maintenance access Reliability
  

Quality Throwaway Critical process pump

How to size a pump – other factors
    

Location Available space Maintenance access Reliability Standardization
  

Duplicate existing ANSI – power industry API – Chemical or Oil

Control Valves for pumps
 Decrease flow  Decrease pressure

downstream of valve  Changes system curve

CV’s for pumps
   

Control valves @75% Head = 110% BHP = 90%

Pump Affinity Laws
 Flow 1 / Flow 2 = Speed 1 / Speed 2  TDH 1 / TDH 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]2  BHP 1 / BHP 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]3

VFD’s for pumps
       

@75% speed Flow = 75% Head = 56% BHP = 42% @50% speed Flow = 50% Head = 25% BHP = 12.5%

How to size a pump: Exercise 6
 A Variable Frequency Drive is used to boost the

capacity of an existing cooling pump to meet additional production capacity.  The pump runs at 1750 RPM [fixed speed standard 25 HP motor minus slip]. Pump operating conditions are measured at 300 GPM, 160 ft TDH, 20 BHP.  If we speed up the pump to 2000 RPM with a VFD, what is the estimated flow, head, and horsepower? Will we have to increase the size of the motor?

How to size a pump: Exercise 6
 Using the Affinity Laws, we get:  Flow 1 / Flow 2 = Speed 1 / Speed 2

Flow 2 =

 TDH 1 / TDH 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]2   TDH2 =  BHP 1 / BHP 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]3   BHP2 =

How to size a pump: Exercise 6
 Using the Affinity Laws, we get:  Flow 1 / Flow 2 = Speed 1 / Speed 2  300/Flow 2 = 1750/2000  Flow 2 = 342 gpm
 TDH 1 / TDH 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]2  160/TDH2 = [1750/2000]2  TDH2 = 209 ft  BHP 1 / BHP 2 = [Speed 1 / Speed2]3  20/BHP2 = [1750/2000]2  BHP2 = 30 hp

How to size a pump: Exercise 6
The pump is fine. You have to change out the motor when you add the drive to speed up the pump.

How to size a pump: Exercise 7

 VFD on this pump  1800 RPM

HP= 64 TDH=___ GPM=___

 1000 GPM  Speed=___  TDH=____  HP=______  1200 RPM  GPM=___  TDH=___  HP=_____

How to size a pump: Exercise 7
 VFD’s  1800 RPM

 

HP= 64 TDH=80 GPM=1350

 1000 GPH  RPM=1500  TDH=60  HP=?  1200 RPM  GPH=500  TDH=45  HP=?

How to size a pump: Exercise 7
 VFD’s  1800 RPM

 

HP= 64 TDH=80 GPM=1350

 1000 GPH  RPM=1500  TDH=60  HP=?  1200 RPM  GPH=500  TDH=45  HP=?

How to size a pump: Exercise 7
 Hint: Always do the manual sanity check. Graph it.  Hint: When you don’t know a formula, get it from

your favorite website.

 BHP=[GPM*FT*SG]/[3960*EFF]  Assume eff=0.60 or [look up a real pump in a catalog]  BHP2=[1000*60*1.0]/[3960*.6]=25.2  BHP3=[500*45*1.0]/[3960*.6]=9.5

 Congratulations Junior Engineer.  You are now ready to conquer the world because you

know:

How to size a pump