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Diabetes definition
Metabolic disorder of multiple etiology (causes) characterised by hyperglycaemia with carbohydrates, fat, and protein metabolic alterations that result in defects in the secretion of insulin, its action or both.

What is diabetes?
The majority of intake of carbohydrate food is converted into glucose. The pancreas produces the insulin hormone, which help the organism to take advantage of glucose. In persons with diabetes, the insulin does not work. Therefore, the sugar and the fat increase in the blood.

Negative Feedback

Insulin and negative feedback

Insulin and Glucagon
Many hormones work like this, in tandem, to maintain HOMEOSTASIS

Symptoms of diabetes
Polyuria (urinating frequently) Polydipsia (very thirsty) Weight loss

Other diabetes symptoms
Continuous hunger Fatigue Dry skin Frequent infections Feet ulceration Loss of sensibility in inferior extremities (legs)

Risk factors
Family history of diabetes Older than 30 years of age Lack of physical activity Sedentary life-style (person with little or no physical activity) Poor diet Excessive weight

Risk factors
Lack of knowledge on the disease No health care access Consumption of alcohol and drugs Smoking Cultural myths

Diabetes complications
Retinopathy (blindness?) Nephropathy (kidney problems) Feet ulceration and/or amputations Hypertension Hyperlipidemia (cholesterol?) Gestational diabetes (during pregnancy) Diabetes and HIV

Diabetes complications

Glucose in urine
(suggest possible diabetes)

High glucose in blood
(confirm if higher than 126 mg/dl)

Glucose in haemoglobin
(indicates quality of diabetes control higher than 7 mmol)

Treatment and control
 Medications (insulin vs. hypoglycaemic agents)  Increase physical activity at least walk for 30 min. most days  Appropriate diet vegetables fruit low in fat and carbohydrates  Lifestyle changes

Prevention and/or delay of diabetes complications

Well balanced diet Exercise Medications when appropriate Timely access to health care services No tobacco No alcohol

Tips for healthy cooking
Boil meat instead of frying Take the skin off chicken before cooking Use less salt and sugar when preparing food Avoid fat

Tips for healthy cooking
Use fresh or frozen fruit and vegetables when eating or in between meals Use low fat cheese instead of regular cheese Use low fat milk Drink fruit juice instead of powder juice

Nutritional Pyrimid

CDC Webpage

Physical Activity
To control diabetes the recommendation is to increase physical activity, preferably every day for 20 minutes.

Physical Activity
 Benefits:

Lowers glucose levels in blood Improves blood circulation in the entire body Contributes to weight loss Improves physical and mental wellbeing Helps the body to utilise insulin more efficiently

Physical Activity
 If at risk or over-weight, consult your doctor before you start a physical activity program  Start you program slowly and increase activity level gradually  You can choose the physical activity that you like to do