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Celestial Navigational System

CENG4625 Senior Projects – Semester 2 Adam Almaguer, Juan Flores, Thomas Ives, and Omar Sanjak April 30, 2010

Agenda • • • • • • • Background Project Motive Objectives Requirements System Functionality and Components System Simulation Conclusion 2 .

Project Motive • Current NASA navigational plans : – constellation of expensive satellites – 30 meter accuracy – Limited to large celestial bodies • Our navigational system plan: – Provide an inexpensive alternative – provide one meter accuracy position location for surface activities – Useful in any environment with a solid surface 3 .

Objectives Navigation System Easy to use Durable Inexpensive Portable Space Temperature COTS Parts Simple Design Lightweight Rechargable Battery Low Power Usage Large coverage Accurate Accommodate EMU limitations Limited Controls Simple Setup Informative Output Shock Resistant Dust Resistant Radiation Shielded Zero Gravity 4 .

and other celestial bodies – Hardware should consume little power and be rechargeable – Receiver unit is easy to use • Engineering Requirements – Hardware must be enclosed to deter foreign particles from affecting internal and external components – Hardware can be charged using more than one method – Receiver screen output should identify itself and all beacons within its detection range 5 .Requirements • Customer Requirements – System can be used on Mars.

They are: 1. Hardware must comply with the flammability requirements of NASASTD-6001. Off-gassing.) There are several engineering requirements that our group will not be able to implement for the prototype because we do not have a way of testing them.Requirements (Cont. Hardware must be built to withstand cosmic radiation and micrometeorites -This is usually done in a closed lab where components are bombarded with radiation and high velocity projectiles 2. Odor. Hardware will be able to function in zero gravity . 3. and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures for Materials in Environments That Support Combustion” – We would need access to a laboratory in order to conduct Determination of Off-gassed Products and Total Spacecraft Offgassing Tests 6 . “Flammability.We would need to test the hardware in a near zero gravity environment like an airplane following an elliptic flight path relative to the center of the Earth.

distance between beacons.Navigation Concept • Automated Survey – Beacons transmits angle to Receiver • Beacon zero-angle identified • Beacon rotates clockwise A 0° B W 0° 0° X R Z Y C D 0° – Receiver calculates Beacon angles • Angles between beacons provided – Receiver calculates distance to beacons using triangulation 0° • Build Database – Record Beacon info (ID. zero-angle direction. health) – User specified locations ∠R 0 B ∠R 0 D ∠R 0 C ∠R 0 A • Periodic Re-Survey – Beacon angles re-measured – Beacon distances re-measured – New specified locations recorded 7 .

Beacon Circuit Prism /w Lens 30M Distance Motor Assembly /w Photo Interrupters Buffer Reset Buffer ÷2 5V Counter (74LS93) ID Switch Preamble (AAAAH) Buffer 16MHz CLK ÷2 16MHz Laser 4 4 2MHz 12 2 8 2 16 ÷4 8MHz Parallel to Serial (74165) Buffer PSK Signal Modulator 8 .

Beacon Message Guard (2 bits) Free (8 bits) Guard (2 bits) Angle (12 bit) ID (8 bit) Preamble (16 bit) Extra (16 bit) Message (48 bit) 9 .

Receiver Circuit Photo Diode DC bias Circuit DC Blocking Filter Amplifier (OPA37) Baud CLK PLL Demodulator (NE564) Data Clock Preamble Serial to Parallel (74LS299) /w Word Compare Angle 12 ID 8 UART (IN58250N) Data Good 16 Display RS232 112Kb/s Navigation Computer (Propeller) 10 .

Receiver Microcontroller  Programmed in SPIN or PASM  Runs at 3.3V  32KB RAM and 32KB ROM  8 32bit CPUs 32 I/O pins  One Video Generator per Core 11 .

Verify that message is accurate (using Message format ) Compare message with previous ones to get enough information about current location. Outputs Visual representation of each beacon and its location from the others. Visual interpretation for location of the receiver 12 .Receiver Process Inputs to Receivers User:  Range of beacon  Distances between beacons Beacon Message:  16-bit preamble  Beacon ID  Beacon Rotation number  8-bit message postamble or Beacon Health  2-bit data separators Calculations Set values to variables for future calculation.

3) 6..3) -.3.RECEIVER DISPLAY Latitude 8m 120 m 56 152 24 88 3 2 Longitude .6) 2.3) (-2 1) (-2.24 m Vector (-2. 5) 1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 13 .

– On Receiver • Hardware integration and troubleshooting. • Navigation system dependent on other systems for accuracy – Accurate directional system such as Celestial Navigation. • Navigational software for calculations. Questions? 14 .Conclusion and Future Work – On Beacons • FSK modulator implementation. – Accurate distance measurement between beacons.

NP2004-01-334-HQ. James. D. 2004 – Schier. 2008 15 .) • References – NASA. “NASA’s Lunar Space Communication and Navigation Architecture.Conclusion (Cont..C.C.. D.” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Washington. NASA.” Tech. NASA HQ. Washington. Rep.092407. “The Vision for Space Exploration.

Additional Slides 16 .

Phase Lock Loop (PLL) Demodulator PLL Phase Detector FSK in (8/16MHz) VCO BPF (2MHz) Schmitt Trigger Data out (2MHz) Clock out (16 MHz) 17 .

System Difficulties • Receiver Hardware Integration. • Message separation to calculate receiver’s location. 18 . • Communication between microcontroller and the receiver itself.