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Tata’s Ratan- Nano- A legend

before launch

Dr Amit Rangnekar
A legend before launch
• “Innovation is primarily implementing
a new idea to give the company a
competitive edge, in all aspects of the
value chain. I can’t think of any other
product or service which has built up
such a strong brand without spending
money. Within 24 hours of the launch,
the Nano website had four million
• Ravi Kant, MD Tata Motors
The Tata’s
• India’s premier industrial group
• Revered- Ethics & values personified
• 3% of India’s GDP
• Diversified conglomerate
• Salt to Steel to Software to Services
• Very aggressive in M&A of late

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Indian Auto market

• 2008- $40b, by 2016 to $145b, 5% GDP to 10%

• 15L cars, China 95L, US 1.3cr
• Penetration only 7/1000 cars- Indonesia (18),
Thailand (57), US (453) and Germany(565)
• N5Y- 50K cr investments, triple capacity to 4mn
• 75% cars < 1100 cc, < Rs 5 Lakh price
• Emerging export base- 2.5 L cars, 35% cheaper
than EU
• “If a car maker targets only exports, China is
cheaper by 12-15% to, but for those looking at a
mix of global & local, India makes sense."

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Indian Auto market customer
• Spoilt for choice
• 1983- 4 variants, 1993-14, 2003-83, 2008- 310
• 90 new variants only in 2008
• Middle class growth- 50m(2005)-583m(2025)- McKinsey
• Value conscious, price sensitive customer
• Drivers- Rising PCI, aspirational lifestyle, rural affluence,
downaging, reducing car ownership period
• Vehicle financing penetration- India 85-90% cars sold,
China 50%, US 45%- AT Kearney
Average monthly category
Cat Players 02 03 04 05 06 07

A Maruti 800 28 24 21 14 10 7
B Alto, WagonR, 33 41 47 57 64 75
Santro, Indica
C Esteem, Swift, 12 15 18 22 26 33
Indigo, Ikon,
D Mercedes-C, 1 2 3 4
Skoda Superb
P/L Mercedes-E, 1 1 1 1 1 1
74 81 88 96 104 120
Dr Amit Rangnekar
Segment break-up
Segment Length Sales Share CAGR Majors
(mm) 2007 2007 L5Y
(U) % %

A1 Mini <3400 79245 6 -11.5 Maruti 800

A2 3401- 786590 56 23 Alto, Swift, Zen, Indica,

Compac 4000 Santro
A3 Midsize 4001- 200918 14 19 Esteem, Indigo, Accent,
4500 Honda City

A4 4501- 37099 3 87 Honda Civic, Toyota Corolla

Executi 4700
Indian two-wheeler market
• Asia- 80% of world’s 315m motorcycles
• 50m in India, 100m in China
• India- 7.2m (7.8) two-wheelers a year, 5 times cars
• Motorcycles degrowing, Scooters growing !
• <1 in 100 Indians own a car, but 1 in 20 owns 2-
• Thailand- 25% population owns 2-wheeler
• In EMs if PCI>$5,000, motorcycles decline as
people prefer cars
• India not even half-way to $5000
Tata Motors (1945)
• India’s largest automobile company- Rs 32500 Cr
• India- leader in Trucks, 2nd in cars, 4m vehicles on Indian roads
• World- 5th largest M&H CV, 2nd M&H bus manufacturer
• 1954- JV with Benz
• Successful with the Indica, Indigo and Ace
• Plants- Pune, Jamshedpur, Lucknow, Pantnagar, Sanand, Dharwad
• 2,000 touch points nation-wide
• Distributes & markets Fiat in India
• Unique positioning- Economy, Rugged and Premium
• Vision- “Best in the manner in which we operate, best in the products
we deliver, and best in our value system and ethics”

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Dr Amit Rangnekar
Past Promise
• “Tata Motors’ made and kept tall promises
before. When designing India’s first indigenous
car, the Indica, Ratan Tata promised consumers
“a car with the Zen’s size, the Ambassador’s
internal dimensions, and the price of a Maruti
800”. And he delivered. If Tata keeps his promise
this time around as well, he could make all global
car makers go back to the drawing boards. If one
is able to make a 4-wheeler (for Rs 1 lakh), it will
change the industry dynamics”
• Pawan Goenka, President, Mahindra &
Mahindra automotive division

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Why Tata’s launched the Nano

Dr Amit Rangnekar
When others said ‘No’, Tata said ‘ Nano
Ratan Tata's dream
• Make motoring affordable to millions of Indians
• Offer Indians ultra low-cost cars @ Rs 1 lakh or
• Impact
• Shaken the automotive world—from Detroit to
Stuttgart to Nagoya
• Rivals, who never considered it a serious threat,
now scurrying back to their own drawing boards

Dr Amit Rangnekar
The 1 lakh car concept
• “The FT interviewer at the Geneva Motor
Show asked me the cost of a low-cost car and
I said about Rs1 lakh. The next day’s
headlines said the Tatas are to produce a
Rs100,000 car. I wanted to issue a rebuttal,
but then I thought, why don't we just take
that as a target. Our people were aghast, but
we had our goal” RNT

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Nano- Lowest ever
Car Maker Intro HP Price* $

Model T Ford 1908 20 19700

Beetle VW 1956 24 11333

Mini Cooper 1961 34 11777

Nano Tata 2008 33 2500

*adjusted to
2007 US $
• Ford Model-T @ $850 in 1908, innovated, reduced price to $500 in 1914
and $290 by 1924
• Ford accounted for 1/3rd of the world’s
Dr Amit car production in 1924
Nano Timeline
• 2003- RNT announces desire to develop Rs 1L car
• 2005- Vendor identification & development
• Mar 2006- Pantnagar plant starts making Tata Ace
• May 2006- Nano prototype ready
• Jun 2006- Announces Singur plant
• Dec 2006- Farmer protests
• 2007- Logistical and operational planning
• Jan 2008- Nano unveiled

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Internalising the concept
• “We initially conceived this as a low-end 'rural
car,' without doors, windows and with rolled down
plastic curtains, a 4-wheel version of the auto-
• “As we progressed we realised we could do better
and slowly gravitated towards a proper car. The
challenges increased exponentially- the low-price
barrier, inflation, adding features and parts,
changes in raw materials”
• “What the team has been able to achieve, in the
face of all these constraints, is truly outstanding”

Dr Amit Rangnekar
The Ideation
• Tata Motors' sprawling 160-acre Pimpri facility
near Pune
• Home to the Engineering Research Centre (ERC)
• Chief Engineer Girish Wagh (37) and his team of
500-odd engineers slogged over four years,
putting in 12-14 hours a day, six days a week to
deliver RNT’s dream
• Today- Instead of back-patting, they already have
got some designs ready for the Nano variants, 5
years ahead.

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Key Team Nano
• Girish Wagh, 37- Head, Small Car Project, also
involved in the design of the small truck Ace
• RG Rajhans, 46- Project Manager (Body Systems),
responsible for body and trim design
• Nikhil Jadhav, 29- lead exterior designer
• Jai Bolar, 29- chief engineer
• Keshav Mirasdar, 57- DGM- Prototype Mfrg
• Abhay Deshpande, 44- AGM- Vehicle Integration,
packaging, performance & chassis design
• Plus 500 engineers

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Process & Design Iterations
• First 'doodles‘- an idea to make scooters safer
• Idea before Indica, didn't envisage a car, but a bar
around a scooter
• Took about 5-6 years, actual work about 4 years
• Entire body designed twice, Engine designed thrice
• Floor & seats designed 10 times
• Dashboard- 2 concepts- attractiveness, utility
• Resources from Tata group companies for the
small car project- Tata Technologies & TCS

Dr Amit Rangnekar
The Model Development
• Rear engine decided in 2004, to get optimal
layout- Jai Bolar- ERC
• 3 concepts, one with best looks chosen
• First full-scale model by mid-2005
• Refinement helped define initial volume of the
car, detail lamps & doors
• Mid-2006: Final refined model by Italian design
house, IDEA
• Design in line with cost targets
• Key- engineering development

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Engineering the Nano
• RNT’s changes increased car length by 100 mm
• Future- No exterior change, few interior changes
• “The rear passenger seat on the engine, saves space.
The engine drives the wheels right there, saving
engineering to get to the driven wheels. So you save on
bonnet space. To lower costs, the construction has been
made as rigid to pass safety tests, but engineered to
keep the car light” RNT
• “An interesting exercise, because after 4 years you want
to do things to make the car better, but your engineers
say this adds Rs 10, that adds Rs 5, to the cost. I think
the culture of the group has been innovative.” RNT

Dr Amit Rangnekar
• Ideas from unexpected quarters
• Vendors and mechanics- part of development
• “Mechanics vehement on additional opening on
the rear floor to access intake manifold and
starter. We tried to avoid this for cost reasons,
but gave in" Wagh
• “Nano, designed with a lot of replicability,
modularity and repairability. The engine can be
removed from its cradle from underneath and
changed if necessary. The design is extremely
modular, extremely interchangeable and
packaged for left-hand drive and right-hand drive
to meet future export requirements” RNT

Dr Amit Rangnekar
• Important to balance design change with cost implications
• 3 key design requirements—cost, regulatory and acceptable
performance standards
• “Critical decision- Mounting engine, exhaust & gearbox in a
single module in the rear- Simplified assembly
• Cut down the number of tools needed to make the car
• “We did not want an embarrassment of a car. Costs were
critical, but the company was unwilling to make any
compromise on other areas” Wagh
• “In India, fuel economy is a major driver for selling a vehicle.
Also important to ensure that the car could be manoeuvred in
the city. If your car requires less parking, then material
required is also less" NK Jain, DGM- ERC

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Learning Curve
• The Indica R&D team worked closely with the Ace
design team
• The Ace core team helped design the Nano
• "Clearly, the Nano was a tougher cost target. In a
commercial vehicle, endurance is of prime
importance. It is also important in the case of a car,
but sometimes other aspects like touch and feel are
more critical. Possibly, the biggest plus point
through the launch of the Indica and the Ace is that
the development process at Tata Motors has
matured to a great extent” Wagh

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Supply Chain
• Over 100 component suppliers converted from
sceptics to partners
• Inextricably tied up and investing in dedicated
ancillary facilities
• Key Suppliers and Tier II & III suppliers investing
Rs 600cr
• Includes support services and logistics to
transport 250,000 small cars a year to dealers
across the country

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Outsourcing & Vendors
• 85% vehicle from outside
• Initial steel from JFE (Japan) & POSCO (Korea)
• Tata Steel’s expansion not complete
• Clusters & JIT- Assemblies, ancillaries and sub-
• “The logic is to keep manufacturing simple. Parts
should move JIT & smoothly, between vendors
and assembly line” Wagh

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Outsourcing & Vendors
• "We felt it was not feasible for us to compete for the basic Nano
model as the costing was too tight, but we plan to bid for the
'Deluxe model‘ “Sanjay Labroo, MD, Asahi India
• "This car is not over-engineered like German cars, but is a great
example of frugal cost-effective & relevant engineering. When
we figured out that the car would be rear-wheel drive, we knew
the steering column could be engineered differently since the
front wheels would not have the weight of the engine. So we
kept the steering column hollow" Surinder Kapur, MD, Sona
• Bosch, world’s biggest components company, supplied a
stripped-down version of its Motronic engine-management

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Outsourcing & Vendors
• Lumax Industries- head and tail lights and fixtures
• "The opportunity to work on this car gave our
engineers a chance to showcase their skills. Other
car products are designed abroad & we only
manufacture components to a specific blueprint.
Here, we designed light fixtures that meet all
regulatory needs, fit the car and are low-cost"
Deepak Jain, Lumax
• "A long-life bulb lasts 10 years but adds a lot to the
cost, so we fit a standard-life bulb that met
regulatory and warranty issues but kept costs low"

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Outsourcing & Vendors
• Suppliers set near-impossible price targets, based
on volume estimations of 2.5-10L units pa
• Price negotiations started at 50% of the quote
• Some managed to push it up to 80-85%
• The promise of unprecedented volumes, would
make Nano vendor businesses worth between Rs
7-9,000 cr or 25% of the total domestic
component business in India!

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Cost cutting
• Involving vendors from the start helped reduce costs
• Normal wheel mounting has 4 pins, Nano has 3
• Reduced bumper thickness, 1 wiper instead of 2
• E-sourcing helped cut costs (10%) for Indica, Ace & Nano
• "Rising input costs (steel prices) made engineering targets
difficult, so we reduced amount of steel in the car" Ravi Kant,
MD, Tata Motors
• “From the initial cost prevention, our focus has moved clearly to
cost-reduction. But it is very important to look beyond costs, as
price is what a customer pays in the beginning. Later on, only
the performance of the car matters“ Wagh

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Distributed Manufacturing
• Possible scenario
• CKD car kits from Tata plants- Pant Nagar, Pune & Sanand, ferried to
warehouses across India for dealers
• Dealers to assemble, warehouse, display and sell
• On firm order, withdraw kit, assemble, and deliver
• Unheard of in the auto industry, also the $2500 price
• Closest resemblance- furniture business
• Social dimension- providing rural entrepreneurship
• Rationale- For large non-metro volumes, customer access critical
• Develop warehousing facilities in Class A & Tier I towns

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Singur Fiasco
• Dedicated Nano factory in Singur, West Bengal
• Bring the car industry back to WB- starved of investment
• Invested $400m in WB, against advice
• Politically motivated protests over project land prices
• Choice: negotiate with farmers, buy them off, walk away
• 7th Oct 2008, Tatas walk away distressed & disappointed
• Shift project and 10,000 jobs to Sanand, Gujarat
• Hope- demand for higher models will offset extra costs
• Launch postponed to Q409
• Shifting costs, time lags, disruptions for Tatas & suppliers
• Initial production from Pune or Pantnagar
• Sanand can produce 250,000 cpa, scale to 500,000 cpa
• 1800cr Nano project in Sanand, Gujarat
• Capacity- 1000 cars per day= 250,000
• Scaleable to 500,000 cars
• “Alternate fuel technologies such as CNG and LPG
are under development. Future models could also
have a diesel engine, as also continuously
variable or automatic transmission" RNT
• Pantnagar and Pune facilities will also support
Nano launch

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Dr Amit Rangnekar
Car Features
• Dealer Price: Rs 100,000 (Base Model)
• L 3.1 metres, W 1.5 metres, H 1.6 metres
• Engine: RW drive, 2-cylinder, 623 cc, MPFI Petrol
• Body: All sheet-metal body
• Tyres: Tubeless.
• Emission: Lower overall pollution level than 2-
• Fuel efficiency: 20 kmpl
• Seats: 4* 6-feeters comfortably
• Adequate ground clearance
• Effortless manoeuvrability, Less parking space

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Dr Amit Rangnekar
Broad cost estimates
• Body-Shell (steel, frame, welding)
- Rs 25,000
• Engine & Transmission (Aluminium
engine block, gearbox, drive-train,
steering) - Rs 30,000
• Electricals (lights, battery, starter)
-Rs 10,000
• Interior Trim (floor mats, seats,
plastics, roof trim) - Rs 20,000
• Tyres and suspension - Rs 10,000
• Transportation- Rs 2500
• Operating Profit per 'Basic' vehicle -
Approx. Rs 2,500

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Nano interiors
• Tata Capacity- 2.5L units pa
• Sales Value- 2.5L units *Rs 1L price = Rs 2,500
crore pa
• Will add 8% to current revenues of Rs 32,000
crore pa
• Traditionally, low cost car net margin < 5%
• Sales of 4 million units can recoup Rs 1500
• India- Annual car sales- 1.5 million units
• India- Annual 2-wheeler sales- 7.5 million units

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Nano v 800 v Bike- Ownership Cost
Maruti 800 Tata Nano Bike
Engine 796cc 623cc 100cc
Price Rs 225,000 Rs 120,000 45,000
(OTR) (88%)
DP Rs 10,000 Rs 10,000 Rs 5,000
EMI (60m) Rs 3,583 Rs 1,833 (95%) Rs 667

Kmpl 15 20 50
/ Km cost Rs 3.33 Rs 2.50 (33%) Rs 1.00

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Competitors Strategy
• Bajaj-Renault: Rs 1L car, ‘Lite’ @ 30kmpl
• Suzuki: Maruti 800 costs Rs1.3L, difficult to reduce costs
• Challenge from True value, with over 1L deals in 2007
• Hyundai- Low cost small car
• VW/ Ford/ Benz/ Toyota/Honda/GM- small cars, costly
• Hero Honda: No firm plans
• Reva- Rs 1L green car
• Tata- First mover advantage, idea validated

“We would like to see a fair battle inside the marketplace,

not outside ” RNT
• “Carlos Ghosn was the only one in the industry who
said the Nano could be done, he was my secret
Dr Amit Rangnekar
• Optimistic- Convert 10% 2-wheeler users to Nano= 7.5L units
• Additional 3L units from existing/potential car buyers, driven by price &
features- Nano can cross 10L units
• Realistic- 90% 2-wheelers sold in Rs 30- 45,000 range
• Highly sensitive wrt price, maintenance cost & fuel efficiency
• Nano- 3x of a bike- wrt cost price, running costs & mileage
• Higher interest rates skid the throbbing 2 wheeler market
• Migration to nano may not be en masse
• 2.5L units (Full capacity)
• Pessimistic- Initial production hiccups and teething problems, which every
Tata car has faced- 1.5L units
• Between the car market and two-wheeler market
• May cannibalise some of the two-wheeler market
and four-wheeler market
• May cannibalise Tata Indica sales
• Will hit the used car market hard
• People may opt for Nano as a second car
• Local taxi

Dr Amit Rangnekar
• Nano Standard- No frills
• Nano Deluxe- AC, central lock, power windows,
body-coloured bumpers & fabric-trimmed seats
• We are launching with a conventional
transmission, but we will have a continuously
variable, and maybe at a later time even an
automatic one.
• Eventually, we will launch the vehicle in several

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Rural India
• Will find space in rural & semi-rural India
• Prime transport mode for small households, who
today travel on tractors and 2-wheelers
• Innovative changes in financing, to make it
• Remove distribution & service layers as much as
• Designing a low breakeven point assembly plant kit
for entrepreneurs who can assemble, retail and

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Dealer Speak
• Bangalore- “ We expect a mad rush for bookings,
similar to that for Indica, which saw 250,000
bookings on the day of its launch in 1999. We are
also investing in our software to accommodate the
• Delhi- “We have developed space to sell 1,500 cars
a month from 300 now”
• Mumbai- “We have created space to park up to 50
cars in our showroom and 500 in our stock yard”
• Kochi- “We are preparing ourselves as this car could
be a volumes game”

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Key concerns
• Safety
• "The Nano meets all current Indian regulations and
future EU regulations including offset frontal and side
• Emissions
• "Currently, meets Bharat III norms, applicable in 11
cities & Bharat II norms in rest of the country. We will
meet Bharat Stage IV and Euro IV requirements as
• Congestion
• “Initially we will produce only 250,000 cars, which can
be scaled up to 500,000 cars

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Myths shattered
• Cheap means unsafe- physically validated crash test results on
1 vehicle and plans more tests in the future
• Rear-engined cars are unsafe- Ferrari, Porsche, VW and
Lamborghini do it why can't Tata?
• The Nano will pollute the planet- 623cc engine produces less
CO2 than average EU small car, working on CNG and LPG
• The Nano will have no storage space- sufficient storage
space, under the bonnet and over the rear parcel tray. rear seats
fold flat to dramatically increase storage space.
• The Nano can't go fast- tested Nano at 105 kmph, too much to
expect brilliant acceleration

Dr Amit Rangnekar
• “ The greatest achievement of our people is that
they packaged the car very efficiently in terms of
bumper-to-bumper size and yet left the interior
dimensions amazingly large”
• “If you look at the so-called small-cars
internationally, they have been designed to be
owner-driven, and the back seat, 50-80% based
on occupancy ratios. In India that occupancy ratio
could be 100%” RNT

Dr Amit Rangnekar
• Steep climb in steel & polypropylene prices,
global meltdown
• Costs have risen by $165 (AT Kearney) per Nano
• Tata may lose up to $90 / basic Nano (Economist)
• Car loans up from 8% to 16%
• Petrol prices
Nano- CSR or Business
• “A bit of both. You don't produce a small car with low
margins as a business case. You do it because you
want to make a contribution and uplift the quality of
life of the country. You also don't go into a venture to
lose money, so there is a business case, but you make
the sacrifice in terms of making profits. It is always
easier to design something which is less critical. This is
just the start of the journey, we have to build the plant,
we have to put the product on the road. We have to
live up to the aspirations of the customer, there are
many who say we have sacrificed quality, we have
sacrificed reliability, which we haven't. And we will
have to prove that”

Dr Amit Rangnekar
The Indian consumer
• “If someone stopped walking, upgraded to a bicycle & then to a
motorcycle, but cannot afford a car, is he condemned to live the rest of
his life in that form? No, he will aspire for more, & as prosperity
improves, more & more people will aspire. But, suddenly, a quarter of
our society seems to grudge those people & you wonder if they have
the right to determine for the rest of the society”
• “New 2-wheeler capacities are being created by foreign firms, but I
don't hear a word that such investment will crowd roads with 2-
wheelers. As car sales increase, 2-wheeler sales will also increase.
• “India is a country of masses, with a great unsatisfied demand. The
capacity & demand for improvement in the quality of life is enormous,
and this attracts foreign companies to look at India as a market”

Dr Amit Rangnekar
The FIAT partnership
• Tata’s partnership with FIAT in India
• Ferrari, a division of FIAT
• Ferrari selected TCS for designing the software
behind the Ferrari's F1 championship winning team
• Over 30 engineers each in Maranello and Chennai
• TCS’ success extends now, to Ferrari's range and
FIAT subsidiaries like Iveco (Truck) & CNH (Farm
• Tata Motors may partner Ferrari in India
• FIAT may drive Tata’s Nano launch in EU & Brazil

Dr Amit Rangnekar
Diversification benefits
• Design from ERC
• Technology and Design from TTL
• Software from TCS
• Steel from Tata Steel
• Emerging market entry thro Fiat JV
• Hospitality support- Taj
• Telecommunication- Tata Indicom

Dr Amit Rangnekar
RNT’s Riposte
• “When you set a bunch of young
Indian engineers a goal that
most people around the world
think impossible, it is significant
that they are able to achieve it.
People may criticise Tata Motors,
or me, for adding congestion,
but how about giving recognition
to a bunch of young engineers
who did something everyone
thought impossible”
“We started with a clean sheet of paper and created a new
template to develop a ULCC that others will now follow. The
overall outcome was a culture defined by frugality and a
willingness to challenge convention, which many call “Gandhian
engineering. In terms of engine performance & emissions, we
have bettered our expectations. Still some engineering tweaks to
be done before launch, but on the whole, it has come together
much better than I expected. It is a very elegant package, no
Dr Amit Rangnekar
wasted space… I am very, very happy”
The Nano XP
• “The goal of making a “proper” car has been achieved.
Although noisy, the tiny 32bhp engine provides enough puff
to reach the claimed maximum speed of 60mph. Despite the
tall roof and the weight carried over the rear wheels, the
Nano handles quite predictably and is particularly nimble at
city speeds. Given its tiny size it is astonishingly spacious
inside and comfortably seats 5. The interior plastics and
fittings look cheap, but then the car is cheap.”
Nano- International Press
• The Times, London- Defying expectations that a
company best known for its elephantine lorries could
manufacture a cutting-edge passenger product.
• The New York Times- Hypocrisy of the dealers who
have resisted Tata's bid for Jaguar on the grounds that
Indian ownership would erode the brand's prestige.
• The Washington Post- Could revolutionize production
& distribution to compete, create more problem for
beleaguered US auto workers, who will become
expendable as Detroit shifts manufacturing to India
• The Guardian- Landmark in transport comparable to
first powered flight by Wright brothers, or the first

Dr Amit Rangnekar