You are on page 1of 25

TAXONOMY

INTRODUCTION
BIOLOGY

MICROBIOLOGY

ZOOLOGY

BOTANY

INTRODUCTION

MORPHOLOGY: STUDYOF EXTERNAL FORM & STRUCTURE ANATOMY: STUDY OF INTERNAL (SECTIONS) STRUCTURES HISTOLOGY: STUDY OF TISSUES UNDER MICROSCOPE PHYSIOLOGY: STUDYOF PROCESSES & FUNCTIONS OF ORGANISMS

INTRODUCTION
TAXONOMY: IT IS THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL BRANCH OF BIOLOGY IT DEALS WITH THE IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION & NOMENCLATURE OF LIVING ORGANISMS

INTRODUCTION

SYSTEMATICS: THE STUDY OF ORGANISMS COMPARITIVE & EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS CLASSIFICATION: IT IS A SUB-TOPIC OF SYSTEMATICS, DELS WITH ORDERING OF ORGANISMS TAXONOMY: IT IS THE STUDY OF PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURE OF CLASSIFICATION

EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION is study of cumulative changes in the characteristics of population & organisms that occur during the course of time in response to changes in the environment The theory of evolution is the foundation upon which all of modern biology is built

Charles Darwin

HISTORY

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) provided concepts of evolutionary change through time Subsequent botanists incorporated these into classifications A different way to view taxagroupings on an evolutionary tree

Cont

Knowledge commonly inscribed on walls of temples (e.g., Karnak) Systematic knowledge originated as medicinal and economically useful plants during Egyptian times Increasing written lore on uses of plants as medicines, food, ornamentals

Cont

Theophrastus (370-285 B.C.), pupil of Aristotle, created first artificial plant groupings based on habit (De Historia Plantarum) Dioscorides (ca. 60 A.D.) wrote treatise on medicinal plants (De Materia Medica) Greeks and Romans expanded knowledge to other plant life

SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION
ARTIFICIAL SYSTEM : CARLOS LINNAEUS HABBIT OF PLANT NO. & UNION LENGTH OF STAMEN

NATURAL SYSTEM : BENTHAM & HOOKER NATURAL AFFINITIES

PHYLOGENETIC SYSTEM : ADOLF ENGLER & KARL PRANTL EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY GENITIC RELATIONSHIP ETC

Why is classification important?

THERE ARE MANY ORGANISMS

Why is classification important?

SOME ARE SIMILAR

Why is classification important?

SOME ARE LESS SIMILAR

Why is classification important?

SOME VERY DISSIMILAR

Cont

THERE ARE

~ 1 million species of plants, 5-10 million species of animals + fungi, bacteria, etc.
no good estimates of numbers of species

Human mind needs to organize information

Cont

The main aim of a taxonomic study is to assign organism an appropriate place in a systematic framework of classification. This framework is called TAXONOMIC HIERARCHY

TAXONOMIC HIERARCHY
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species King Phil called old fat George stupid.

FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION

Kingdom Monera (Bacteria) Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia R.H.WHITTAKER (1769)

FATHER OF TAXONOMY

Swedish Botanist May 23, 1701 Jan. 10, 1778 He based his plant classification system on the plants method of reproduction and structure of reproductive parts Introduced binomial nomenclature

Carolus Linneaus (aka Karl von Linn)

BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE

The system of giving scientific names to each of the identified plant or animal. The names are unique and universally accepted. Names consist of 2 parts hence called BINOMIAL Names are in Greek and Latin

Cont

1st part is GENUS NAME - NOUN 2nd part is SPECIES NAME ADJECTIVE E.g. shoe flowerHibiscus rosasinensis lionPanthera leo

Cont

Three codes

Animals:

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature International Code of Botanical Nomenclature International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes

Plants, Fungi, algae, etc.:

Bacteria Etc:

Plant classification

Plant Classification
Plants Non-flowering Sporebearing No roots Mosses with roots Ferns Naked seeds Gymnosperms Flowering 1 seedleaf Monocots 2 seedleaves Dicots

THANK YOU