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T 1 SEMINAR ON

DESIGN OF REINFORCED SLOPES

Presented by-

Shahane Hrishikesh A. (121321011) Shaikh Mohammed Asif .Y S (121321012) Ingawale Harshvardhan D.(121121008)
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INTRODUCTION
The design approach principally assumes that the slope is to

be constructed on a stable foundation.


The reinforcement of slopes may be undertaken for a number of applications including: reinforcement of fill in new construction, reinforcement of failed slopes, reinforcement of existing ground in cut slopes reinforcement of existing cut or fill slopes which are marginally stable,
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Reinforcement of existing ground


The techniques described in this clause do not involve disturbance of the ground, apart from insertion of the reinforcement. They may be used in walls or slopes which have failed but have not collapsed completely to prevent future failure of a wall or slope or to enable an existing slope to be cut back to a steeper angle. These techniques are also employed in new construction. Four techniques may be identified: 1. soil nailing; 2. reticulated root or micro piles; 3. soil dowelling; 4. ground anchors
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CLAUSES
The density of reinforcement in a reinforced soil structure with a steep face will generally result in a stiff reinforced structure and hence the soil pressures acting on the

reinforced block should be taken into account.


As the angle of the face declines from the vertical the influence of the retained soil reduces and the proportion of the stability provided by the reinforcement decreases.

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ASSUMPTIONS
The angle of the slope will have some influence on the method of
analysis to be employed, but most importantly will determine the type of facing to be employed and the method of construction to

be used.
A distinction is therefore made between steep slopes (slope angles greater than 45 to the horizontal), and shallow slopes (slope angles less than or equal to 45 to the horizontal). provide some form of facing for steep slopes to enable anchorage

of the reinforcement in the active zone and to provide erosion


protection.
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For shallow slopes it is usually possible to establish vegetation for long term erosion protection. Some suitable fills have adequate stability at 45 providing resistance against deep-seated slips thus obviating the need for structural facings. Therefore it is possible to place, compact and trim fill to a face slope of 45 without permanent or temporary support of the face.

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AREAS OF APPLICATION
The methods of constructing reinforced soil slopes can be divided into two main categories: a) the reinforcement of fill materials, new or excavated and replaced, by reinforcement which is placed horizontally

within the compacted layers of fill.


b) the reinforcement of existing ground by reinforcement which is inserted from the slope face at appropriate angles to suit the design.
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FACINGS
It is usually difficult to establish permanent vegetation to cover the exposed face of steep slopes.

A permanent facing will therefore usually be necessary to


prevent erosion and ensure face stability. Facings connected to the reinforcements may also be necessary to ensure load transfer in the active zone.

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REINFORCED SLOPE ANALYSIS


Reinforced soil structures are designed to conformed to two limit statesa) Ultimate limit state- Relevant potential collapse mechanisms are identified. b) Serviceability limit states- Relevant working conditions are identified and the structure checked to ensure that it will retain the characteristics necessary for it to fulfill its function throughout its life.

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The limit states which should be considered are as followsa) External stability: -Bearing and tilt failure; - Forward sliding; - Slip failure around the reinforced soil block; - settlement of the slope foundation. b) Internal stability: - Tensile failure of the individual reinforcement, - Bond failure of the individual reinforcement,

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External stability:
1.Bearing and tilt failureThe typical bearing pressure by a reinforced soil structure on the foundation strata is shown in fig-a

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For design, a bearing pressure qr based upon a Meyerhof distribution may be assumed,

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The imposed bearing pressure qr should be compared with the ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation soil as follows:

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2) SLIDING ALONG THE BASEThe stability against the forward sliding of the structure at the interface between the reinforced fill and the subsoil should be considered.

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3) settlement of the slope foundationa) Internal settlement of reinforced soil fillThe amount of settlement within the reinforced volume will depend mainly upon the nature of the fill, its compaction, and the vertical pressure within fill.

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b) Differential settlement -

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Where these stability assessments indicate that one or more modes of potential collapse exits, several option may be available -Reduce the slope angle; -Increase the width of the reinforced zone; -Use better quality fill; -enhance the foundation with ground treatment; employ a counterweight such as a berm; -Use lightweight fill; -Incorporate reinforcement at formation level; -Introduce drainage to reduced pore water pressures.

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Internal stability:
Internal stability of the reinforced slope depends upon the ability of reinforcement to resist the loads imposed upon them. A large number of method are available to choose form, these includes, - two-part wedge analyses

- Circular or non-circular analyses


- Log-spiral failure analyses - Coherent gravity method

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two-part wedge analyses The two-part wedge analysis assumes a bilineal failure surface. This is a logical extension of the Coulomb wedge approach for vertical walls.

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1. The gross disturbing force for an unsurcharged slope is give by,

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2. The recommended vertical reinforcement spacing Svj to prevent reinforcement rupture can be determine,

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3. The bond failure is not attained the reinforcement bond length Lej is given by,

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CONTAIN:
Need of reinforcement to earth slope. What is analysis of reinforced slopes? General method of analysis of reinforced slope. Slices method for circular slip analysis.

Assumptions made in wedge method of analysis.


What is design of reinforced slopes? Step by step procedure of design of reinforced slopes. Example on design of reinforced slope.
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DETAILED ANALYSIS METHOD


One approach to the design is to determine the required strength of reinforcement by means detailed limit equilibrium analysis such as a bishop method. When a failure surface intersect the reinforcement layer, an

additional resisting moment is added to the over all moment


of equilibruim. Tensile force is assumed to be horizontal.as shown in fig.3
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The factor of safety for unreinforced slopes is


Fs(u)=c*L*R/(W*x)=MR/MD

Where, c=cohesion, L,R,W,X =as shown in fig.3 Mr=Resisting moment Md=Deriving moment Reinforcement is directly contribute to resisting moment So the factor of safety for reinforced slope is given by, Fs(r) = (MR+MG) /MD =Mr +(T hor *D) /MD

Where, MG=resisting moment due to reinforcement


T hor , D = as defined in fig.3

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Orientation of tensile reinforcement is effect on resisting moment and ultimately on factor of safety of reinforced slopes. Thus the maximum resisting moment due to reinforcement is ,

MG= T (inclined) *R
Calculation of resisting moment for multi layered reinforcement is given,

MG= intigration of Ti *Yi from limit 1 to n .


Where, Ti= tensile force of thet particular reinforce layer Yi= height of that particular layer of reinforcement from centre of failure surface. n= no of layers of reinforcement
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Slice method for circular slip analysis


Suitable for slopes of varying geometry and multiple soil strata in this method in reinforced slope it is assumed that the inter slice forces are ignored because of complexity of the reinforcement. It is also assumed that the reinforcement layer is horizontal and only considered when they intersect with assumed failure surface on a particular

slice.
The MR of combined effect of soil and reinforcement should not be less than the MD due to weight of soil.

the moment should be calculated about the centre of rotation of the


disturbed mass.

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For equilibrium :
MD < M RS + M RR

where, MD is disturbing moment due to surcharge; M RS is restoring moment due to shear strength of soil; M RR is restoring moment due to presence of the reinforcement in the slope. weight of soil and

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SIMPLE WEDGE METHOD OF ANALYSIS


This method is based on assumptions as following; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Extensible reinforcement elements are used. Slopes are constructed within uniform, cohesion less soil ; `,c=0 . No pore pressure within slopes, No seismic loading, Competent , level foundation, Flat slope face and horizontal slope crest, Uniform surcharge load at top of slope, Horizontal reinforcement layer with coefficient of interaction (ci) equal to 0.9

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DESIGN STEPS FOR R E SLPOES BY SIMPLE WEDGE METHOD


STEP 1. calculation of modified height of slopes (H`) to take into account
any uniform surcharge loading at the top of slope. The modified height of slopes (H`)= H+(q/)

STEP 2 . Calculation of factored friction angle (`f)

(`f) = tan^ - 1 ( t a n `/F.s)

w h e r e , ` = soil friction angle `f = factored soil friction angle

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STEP 3.
Calculation of force coefficient k from standard graph given by BIS and here shown in next slide. Calculation of maximum tensile force requirement (T max ). T max is calculated from formula given as, T max =0.5 * k * *H` ^2

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STEP 4:
Determination of length of top (L T) and bottom (B T) reinforcement of the reinforced section.

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STEP5. Next steps is to select appropriate primary geogrid


and calculate the no of layers required. The term primary geogrid layers is refer to the geogrid required to satisfy internl , external , global stability requirment. The spacing of primary geogrid layers at the bottom of slope should not be less than 8 to 12 inches .this is coorespond to typical earth fill thickness. The spacing of primary geogrid should not be more than 4 feet.

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If calculation yields geogrid spacing less than the practical


limit then, the stronger primary geogrid can be chosen. And if yield geogrid spacing more than 4 feet then, lighter geogrid can be used. To determine the appropriate geogrid , calculate the long term

design strength (LTDS) of the material as follows,


LTDS = T ult / (RFCR * RFD * RFID)

Where, T ult= ultimate tensile strength of reinforcement as per ISTM D6637


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RFCR = reduction factor due to creep


RFID = reduction factor due to installation damage RFD = reductio factor due to durability

Then no of reinforced lsyerd id cslulated by , N=T max / LTDS AND SV= H/N

Where, N= no of geogrid layers Tmax=the total geogrid force


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Note that the T max for low section of slope is equal to the total
geogrid force requirment for the entire height of slope. For higher slope section , T max can be distribute over several zones. For example for three zone section t max can be distribute as;

T Bottom=(1/2)T max
T middle =(1/3) Tmax

T top =(1/6) T max

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In other words the section is divided into three zones and the requirment and spacing of geogrid is different. So it result in most efficient and cost effective design

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