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Relativitas Klasik

1,000,000 ms-1

1,000,000 ms-1

Seberapa cepat Spaceship A mendekati Spaceship B? kedua Spaceships melihat satu sama lain mendekati dengan kecepatan 2,000,000 ms-1. Hal ini dikenal dengan relativitas klasik.

Einstein (1879 1955) noticed that Newtons laws of motion are only correct in the limit of low velocities, much less than the speed of light.

Theory

of Special Relativity

Theory

of General Relativity

1. Observers can never detect their uniform motion, except relative to other objects.

This is equivalent to:

The laws of physics are the same for all observers, no matter what their motion, as long as they are not accelerated.

0 ms-1

300,000,000 ms-1

1,000,000 ms-1

Both spacemen measure the speed of the approaching ray of light. How fast do they measure the speed of light to be?

Special Relativity

Stationary man

300,000,000 ms-1

301,000,000 ms-1? Wrong!

2. The velocity of light, c, is constant and will be the same for all observers, independent of their motion relative to the light source.

Consider thought experiment:

Motion of Assume a light source moving with velocity v stationary relative to a stationary observer: observer

v

c Dt

v

c Dt

c Dt Light source Seen by an observer moving along with the light source

l d

d = c Dt

l = c Dt

x = v Dt

(b) Sumber merah diam dan sumber biru bergerak dgn kecepatan tertentu

Now, recall that the velocity of light, c, is the same for all observers.

Then, the Pythagorean Theorem gives: (cDt)2 = (cDt)2 + (vDt)2 or c Dt c Dt Dt = (Dt)/g where g = 1/(1 [v/c]2)1/2 v Dt is the Lorentz factor.

Time Dilation

Observers measure moving clocks to run slow The faster the speed, the slower the time

Length Contraction

Length scales on a rapidly moving object appear shortened.

Contoh Soal

Jarak antara dua titik A dan B di permukaan bumi adalah 600 km. Sebuah pesawat super cepat bergerak dengan kelajuan 0,8 c melintasi kedua titik tersebut. (a) Tentukan jarak A ke B menurut pilot pesawat. (b) Tentukan waktu yang diperlukan pesawat untuk melintasi kedua titik tersebut menurut orang di bumi dan menurut pilot pesawat.

Doppler Effect

The pitch of the siren:

Rises as the ambulance approaches Falls once the ambulance has passed.

Approaching objects appear blue (Blue-shift) Receding objects appear red (Red-shift)

The mass of moving object:

m mo 1 v c

2 2

m0 = rest mass

E0 = m0 c2

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