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Relativitas Klasik

1,000,000 ms-1

1,000,000 ms-1

Seberapa cepat Spaceship A mendekati Spaceship B? kedua Spaceships melihat satu sama lain mendekati dengan kecepatan 2,000,000 ms-1. Hal ini dikenal dengan relativitas klasik.

Einstein and Relativity

Einstein (1879 1955) noticed that Newtons laws of motion are only correct in the limit of low velocities, much less than the speed of light.

of Special Relativity

Also, revised understanding of gravity


of General Relativity

Two Postulates Leading to Special Relativity (1)

1. Observers can never detect their uniform motion, except relative to other objects.
This is equivalent to:

The laws of physics are the same for all observers, no matter what their motion, as long as they are not accelerated.

Einsteins Special Relativity

0 ms-1

300,000,000 ms-1

1,000,000 ms-1

Both spacemen measure the speed of the approaching ray of light. How fast do they measure the speed of light to be?

Special Relativity
Stationary man
300,000,000 ms-1

Man travelling at 1,000,000 ms-1

301,000,000 ms-1? Wrong!

The Speed of Light is the same for all observers

Two Postulates Leading to Special Relativity (2)

2. The velocity of light, c, is constant and will be the same for all observers, independent of their motion relative to the light source.

Here Come The Consequences!

Basics of Special Relativity

Consider thought experiment:
Motion of Assume a light source moving with velocity v stationary relative to a stationary observer: observer

c Dt

c Dt

c Dt Light source Seen by an observer moving along with the light source

v Dt Seen by the stationary observer

l d

d = c Dt

l = c Dt

x = v Dt

(a) Sumber merah dan biru sama-sama dalam kerangka diam

(b) Sumber merah diam dan sumber biru bergerak dgn kecepatan tertentu

Basics of Special Relativity (2)

Now, recall that the velocity of light, c, is the same for all observers.

The times Dt and Dt must be different!

Then, the Pythagorean Theorem gives: (cDt)2 = (cDt)2 + (vDt)2 or c Dt c Dt Dt = (Dt)/g where g = 1/(1 [v/c]2)1/2 v Dt is the Lorentz factor.

This effect is called time dilation.

Time Dilation
Observers measure moving clocks to run slow The faster the speed, the slower the time

Length Contraction
Length scales on a rapidly moving object appear shortened.

Contoh Soal
Jarak antara dua titik A dan B di permukaan bumi adalah 600 km. Sebuah pesawat super cepat bergerak dengan kelajuan 0,8 c melintasi kedua titik tersebut. (a) Tentukan jarak A ke B menurut pilot pesawat. (b) Tentukan waktu yang diperlukan pesawat untuk melintasi kedua titik tersebut menurut orang di bumi dan menurut pilot pesawat.

Doppler Effect
The pitch of the siren:
Rises as the ambulance approaches Falls once the ambulance has passed.

The same applies to light!

Approaching objects appear blue (Blue-shift) Receding objects appear red (Red-shift)

Other Effects of Special Relativity

The mass of moving object:
m mo 1 v c
2 2

m0 = rest mass

The energy of a body at rest is not 0. Instead, we find

E0 = m0 c2