Interaction Between Biotic Components

Interaction Between Organisms
Long-lasting interactions Temporary interactions

Saprophytism Symbiosis






nutrients and water.Competition: • • Interaction between 2 organisms living together in a habitat and competing for limited recourses.  Intraspecific competition. 2 types: •  Interspecific competition. while plants compete for space. shelter and breeding mates. . light. Animal usually compete for food.

• Permanent and close relationship between 2 or more different species. • There are 3 categories:  Commensalism  Parasitism  Mutualism .Symbiosis • Means „living together‟.

Commensal 2 types + o Host Epiphytes Plants Epizoics Animals .• Commensali Relationship between 2 species that sm benefits one species but either benefits nor harms the other species.

• Green plants.  Has sunken stoma to reduce water loss. Epiphyte • Doesn‟t drive nutrition from its host. (photosynthesise) • Faces difficulties in getting water & minerals.  Roots are coated with spongy layer (velamen) which prevents roots tissue from drying out. Adaptation:  has a swollen stem at its base to store water. Pigeon orchid Bird‟s nest fern Staghon fern Swollen stem Aerial roots .  Has special roots (aerial roots) to absorb moisture.

rain water Ants make their nest among the roots to increase the organic content of this “nest” from decaying of substances in the nest . pieces of tree bark.Others adaptations: Thick waxy cuticle covers the epidermis of the fronds (the leaves of a fern) Adjacent fronds overlap to form a “ nest” • Collects fallen leaves. bird dropping. particles from air.

Epizoics • • • An animal (commensal) attached to another animal (host). Crab Cyclops (kutu air) protozoa shark . protection and feed leftover from their hosts‟ meals. Epizoics attach themselves to the bodies of their hosts for free transport. The host neither suffer loss nor benefit from the epizoics.

The green alga cells get shelter. water. . • The fungus gets food and oxygen from alga cells which carry on photosynthesis. mineral salts from fungus. Lichen (kulampair) • • Combination of a green alga and a fungus.Mutualism • Relationship between two organism which both benefit.

 In return. the bacteria get shelter and food from the plants.Rhizobium in the nodules of leguminous plants  Rhizobium are nitrogen-fixing bacteria living in nodules of leguminous plant (kekacang). .  Its convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium compounds that are used by plants.

Microorganisms (protozoa & bacteria) and herbivores • There are protozoa & bacteria living in the alimentary canal of herbivore. The balance is used by the microorganisms. produce the enzyme cellulase to digest the cellulose of plant material taken by host. . • A large part of the sugar produced is absorbed by the host herbivore.

Sea anemone gets transported and sources of food from hermit crab .Sea anemone (buran laut) Sea anemone live on the top of the shell of marine snail. Shell (host) Hermit crab (umang-umang) The hermit crab gets protection from the tentacles of the sea anemone.

• Relationship between two organisms where the parasite benefits but the host is harmed. • 2 types:  Endoparasites  Ectoparasites .

 have flattened shape to cling on to the host.  great reproductive system. sflukes.  no digestive tracts. . they absorb food through the whole body surface. acids or alkalis.  carrying out anaerobic respiration. • Adaptation:  no nervous systems and sense organ.Endoparasite • Tapeworms.  have protective cuticle & anti-enzymes to prevent being digested by hosts‟ enzymes. plasmodium (caused malaria).


.Ectoparasites Animal ectoparasites on plant hosts  Have hook to attach themselves on their hosts  Have sharp mouth parts for hooking. sucking or biting.

Animal Ectoparasites Plant Ectoparasites • Have no leaves. stems or roots. . • Uses its strands of fungus like tissue to draw nutrients from host vine.

. • This relationship is important to keep different animal populations of an ecosystem in balance.Prey-Predator Relationship • The relationship exists when a weaker animal (the _________) is hunted and eaten by another stronger animal (the __________).

Prey or Predator? .

rats owls Prey increase The dynamic equilibrium of the prey’s and predator’s population Predator decrease Prey decrease Predator increase .

• Saprophytes produce enzymes to digest and decompose the dead complex organic matter. .Saprophytism • Animals that feed on dead organic matter that has been digested.