Electric Vehicle Batteries

North Bay Chapter of the Electric Auto Association
Updated 8/14/09
Posted at: http://www.nbeaa.org/presentations/batteries.pdf

NBEAA 2009 Technical Series

1. EV Drive Systems

2. EV Batteries

3. EV Charging Systems
4. EV Donor Vehicles

What is a Battery? Battery History EV Battery Requirements Types of EV Batteries EV Battery Temperature Control

EV Battery Charging
EV Battery Management EV Battery Comparison EV Record Holders Future EV Batteries EV Drive System Testimonials, Show and Tells and Test Drives

What is a Battery?
During Charge
voltage and energy increases heat anode + electrolyte chemical reaction cathode -


charger energy

What is a Battery? During Discharge voltage and energy decreases heat anode + electrolyte chemical reaction cathode - heat current load work .

“Voltaic Pile”. Pb-PbO2 with H2SO4 electrolyte First mass produced non-spillable battery. Zn-Cu with H2SO4 and CuSO4 electrolytes. First battery. 4 MPH with non-rechargeable batteries 1836 1839 England Scotland John Fedine Robert Anderson First rechargeable battery. non-rechargeable First electric carriage. “lead acid”. but short shelf life 1800 Volta First battery with long shelf life. nonrechargeable. “dry cell”. ZnCMn02 with ammonium disulphate electrolyte. Zn-MnO2 with alkaline electrolyte NiH2 long life rechargeable batteries put in satellites NiMH batteries invented 1859 1896 France Gaston Plante Carl Gassner 1910 1914 Sweden US Walmer Junger Thomas Edison and Henry Ford Lewis Curry 1955 US 1970s 1989 US US Li Ion batteries sold LiFePO4 invented 1991 1997 US US . with “Edison nickel iron” NiOOH-Fe rechargeable battery with potassium hydroxide electrolyte Modern low cost “Eveready (now Energizer) Alkaline” nonrechargeable battery invented.Battery History Rechargeable batteries highlighted in bold. nonrechargeable Ni-Cd battery with potassium hydroxide electrolyte invented First mass produced electric vehicle. “Daniel Cell”. Zn-Cu with NaCl electrolyte.

EV Battery Requirements Safe High Power High Capacity Small and Light Large Format Long Life Low Overall Cost .

EV Battery Requirements: Safe Examples of EV battery safety issues: Overcharging explosive hydrogen outgassing thermal runaway resulting in melting. explosion or inextinguishable fire Short Circuit external or internal under normal circumstances or caused by a crash immediate or latent Damage liquid electrolyte acid leakage .

EV Battery Requirements: High Power Power = Watts = Volts x Amps Typically rated in terms of “C” – the current ratio between max current and current to drain battery in 1 hour.68% out . and state of charge 1 Horsepower = 746 Watts Charger efficiency = ~90% Battery charge and discharge efficiency = ~95% Drive system efficiency = ~85% AC.40% lost to heat 60% . example 3C for a 100 Ah cell is 300A Battery voltage changes with current level and direction. 75% DC heat heat heat heat charger batteries motor controller motor shaft 100% in 32% .

~18.000 AC Battery Current ~150A for 144V nominal pack with DC drive ~70A for 288V nominal pack with AC drive Charging Depends on battery type. 160V. ~44.EV Battery Requirements: High Power Example Accelerating or driving up a steep hill Motor Shaft Power = ~50 HP or ~37.000 W Battery Power = ~50.000 W DC.800 W.000 W AC Battery Current ~400A for 144V nominal pack with DC drive ~170A for 288V nominal pack with AC drive Driving steady state on flat ground Motor Shaft Power = ~20 HP or ~15. 20A DC for 3.000 W DC.300 W. charger power and AC outlet rating Example: for 3. 16A AC .000 W Battery Power = ~20. 240V.

2V 100 Amp-Hour cells with negligible Peukert Effect and 95% efficiencies Pack capacity = 48 * 3.EV Battery Requirements: High Capacity Higher capacity = higher driving range between charges Energy = Watts x Hours = Volts x Amp-Hours Watt-hours can be somewhat reduced with higher discharge current due to internal resistance heating loss Amp-Hours can be significantly reduced with higher discharge current seen in EVs due to Peukert Effect Amp-Hours can be significantly reduced in cold weather without heaters and insulation Example: 48 3.2 Volts * 100 Amp-Hours * .592 Wh 340 Watt–Hours per mile vehicle consumption rate Vehicle range = 14.592 Wh / 340 Wh/mi = 42 miles .95 efficiency = 14.

840 W / 10.208 Wh actual energy. 15.8 kg.8 kg = 76 Wh/kg Power Density = 3. and they can’t go anywhere for safety reasons Specific Power = power to weight ratio = Watts / Kilogram Specific Energy = energy capacity to weight ratio = Watt-Hours / Kilogram Power Density = power to volume ratio = Watts / liter Energy Density = energy to capacity to volume ratio = Watt-Hours /liter 1 liter = 1 million cubic millimeters Example: 1 module with 3.208 Wh / 15. 260 x 173 x 225 mm = 10.EV Battery Requirements: Small and Light Cars only have so much safe payload for handling and reliability Cars only have so much space to put batteries.840 W / 15.208 Wh / 10.8 kg = 243 W/kg Specific Energy = 1.1 l = 380 W/l Energy Density = 1.1 liters Specific Power = 3.840 W peak power.1 l = 119 Wh/l . 1.

14 cents per mile . 5 years to 80% capacity on 13. example 100 Ah Long Life Minimize the need for battery replacement effort and cost Example: 2000 cycles at 100% Depth-of-Discharge to reach 80% capacity charging at C/2. 73.EV Battery Requirements Large Format Minimize the need for too many interconnects.000 miles.8V float at 73C Low Overall Cost Minimize the purchase and replacement cost of the batteries Example: $10K pack replacement cost every 5 years driven 40 miles per day down to 80% DOD = 1825 days.

.cdtechno. Source: Life Expectancy and Temperature.pdf.Higher Temperature Reduces Shelf Life 13 degrees reduces the life of lead acid batteries by half. http://www.com/custserv/pdf/7329.

. small format lithium and large format nano lithium not included.EV Battery Comparison Max temp ~ ~ ~ Type LiFePO4 LiCO2 NiZn NiCd Power Energy + + ~ + + ~ ~ Stability + ~ ~ Life ~ + Toxicity + + + - Cost ~ + PbA AGM PbA gel PbA flooded + ~ ~ - + + - ~ ~ ~ - - + + + Available large format only considered. NiMH.


cdstandbypower.Lead Acid Battery “Peukert” Effect Reduces Range at EV Discharge Rates A “75 Amp Hour” battery that provides 75 amp hours at the 20 hour C/20 rate or 3. Dynasty AGM MPS Series 75 Ah 100% 90% 80% Amp hours to 80% DOD (1. 10VP6C) 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0 50 100 150 200 250 Constant Discharge Rate. http://www. Nickel and lithium batteries have far less Peukert Peukert Effect effect. a typical average EV discharge rate.75 amps only provides 42 amp-hours at 75 amps. Amps Data Source: MPS 12-75 Valve Regulated Lead Acid Battery Datasheet.pdf.75 VPC. or 57% of the “nameplate” rating.com/product/battery/vrla/pdf/mps1275. Note: do not use Dynasty MPS batteries in EVs – they are not designed for frequent deep cycling required in EVs .

higher current. .cdtechno. lower voltage DC drive systems. http://www.Lead Acid AGM Batteries are Better for High Current Discharge Rates Gels have higher internal resistance.com/custserv/pdf/7327.pdf. Source: Dynasty VRLA Batteries and Their Application. Higher discharge rates are typical in heavier vehicles driven harder in higher gears with smaller packs and less efficient.

Source: Capacity Testing of Dynasty VRLA Batteries.cdtechno.pdf. http://www.pdf.com/custserv/pdf/7271.com/custserv/pdf/7135.cdtechno.Lead Acid Batteries Need Heaters in Cold Climates They lose 60% of their capacity at 0 degrees Fahrenheit. . Source: Impedance and Conductance Testing. http://www.

pdf.Gels Have a Longer Cycle Life AGMs only last half as long. http://www.cdtechno. . but as previously mentioned can withstand higher discharge rates.com/custserv/pdf/7327. Source: Dynasty VRLA Batteries and Their Application.

Flooded Lead Acid Battery Acid Containment is Required for Safety In addition to securing all batteries so they do not move during a collision or rollover. . flooded lead acid batteries need their acid contained so it does not burn any passengers.

. Thus vehicles and their garages need fail safe active ventilation systems. it gives off explosive hydrogen gas. especially during regular higher equalization charge cycles that proceed watering.Flooded Lead Acid Battery Ventilation is Required for Safety When a cell becomes full.

toxicity or power issues. Blue Top Gel East Penn Deka Dominator Flooded Trojan Golf & Utility Vehicle US Battery BB Series NiCd NiZn Li Poly Flooded Saft STM SBS Evercel Kokam SLPB Note: LiFePO4 are recommended. having the lowest weight but highest initial purchase price. Epoch AGM PbA BB Battery EVP Concorde Lifeline East Penn Deka Intimidator EnerSys Hawker Genesis.High Power. and the rest have safety. . High Capacity Deep Cycle Large Format Batteries Used in EVs: LiFePO4 Hi Power Thunder Sky LMP Valence Technologies U-Charge XP. Odyssey Exide Orbital Extreme Cycle Duty Optima Yellow Top. But they have similar overall cost.

EV Battery Charging .

http://www. Source: Charging Dynasty Valve Regulated Lead Acid Batteries.pdf. .com/custserv/pdf/2128.cdtechno.Battery Chargers Need Voltage Regulation and Current Limiting This shortens charge time without shortening life.

pdf.cdtechno. Battery cooling systems are typically employed with nickel and unstable lithium ion packs to maintain performance while providing safety.EV Charger Temperature Compensation is Required for Safety Excess voltage at higher temperatures can lead to thermal runaway. Source: Thermal Runaway in VRLA Batteries – It’s Cause and Prevention. http://www. explode nickel modules. which can melt lead acid modules. .com/custserv/pdf/7944. and ignite thermally unstable lithium ion cells.

EV Battery Management .

the charge current is controlled. This is particularly important for nickel and thermally unstable lithium ion batteries which can be dangerous if abused. . but may result in uncharged batteries in time of need. • Dashboard gages and displays are good. and the driver is alerted when discharge limits are being approached and then again when exceeded. module level voltage monitoring is better than no monitoring. • For high quality multi-cell modules without cell access.EV Batteries Need to be Monitored • All batteries need to be kept within their required voltage and temperature ranges for performance. long life and safety. a driven disable pin or external contactor will suffice for battery protection. • Ideally each cell is monitored. but combining them with warning and error lamps is better. • For chargers without a real time level control interface.

0 13. Internal Resistance Effect 12.5 AGM Gel battery voltage 11. Data Source: MPS 12-75 Valve Regulated Lead Acid Battery Datasheet.5 Dynasty 12-75 AGM (4.com/product/battery/vrl a/pdf/mps1275. http://www.0 11.Amp-Hour Counters are More Accurate “Fuel Gages” Than Volt Meters To predict when your batteries will drop below the minimum voltage.5 10. Data Source: Integrity Testing.5 12. Open Circuit Rest Voltage vs.com/custserv/pdf/7264. http://www.pdf.9V between 0 and 80% depth of discharge.7V at 600 amps discharge. amps 400 500 600 Ideally your fuel gage looks at all of the above plus temperature and then estimates depth of discharge.0 10.cdstandbypower. Depth of Discharge should be monitored. Note: do not use Dynasty MPS batteries in EVs – they are not designed for frequent deep cycling required in EVs .0 0 100 200 300 discharge rate.cdtechno.0 6 cell Rest Voltage 11.0 12. Open circuit voltage drops only 0.0 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Depth of Discharge 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 10.pdf.5 12. Depth of Discharge 13. and can take a good part of a minute to recover.5 10.5 milliohm) 11.0 Voltage drops up to 2.

• Sealed batteries need to be individually balanced. • Individual balancing can be done manually on a regular basis with a starter battery charger. And it can be a hassle. Bypass resistors that switch on during finish charging only is less desirable but better than no automatic balancing.EV Batteries Need to be Balanced • All batteries will drift apart in state of charge level over time. and early high voltages and not high enough voltages during charge. This will be detected during monitoring as early low voltages during discharge. . • Automatic balancing maximizes life and performance. then watered. whereas flooded batteries can be overcharged as a string. and it can be difficult if the battery terminals are hard to get to. or with a programmable power supply with voltage and current limits. but the latter can be expensive. This is due to differences in Peukert effect and internal leak rates. Ideally balancing is low loss. switching current from higher voltage cells to lower voltage cells at all times.

EV Battery Pictures .

Optima Blue Top AGM Sealed Lead Acid Batteries with PCHC-12V2A Power Cheqs Installed in Don McGrath’s Corbin Sparrow .

Valence Module .

Valence BMU .

Valence batteries and BMU connected via RS485 .

Valence battery monitoring via CANBus and USB to laptop .

Valence Cycler 2.8 now available) .4 battery monitoring screen capture (idle mode. 2.

Valence battery monitoring file list .

Valence battery monitoring file example .

target Troubleshooting unbalanced cell (dropped from >90 Ah to 67 Ah after balancing disabled for 3 months due to late onset RS485 errors due to missing termination resistor and unshielded cables) .Valence battery monitoring results: maximum charge voltage vs.

Valence battery monitoring results: discharge .

Valence battery monitoring results: charge and discharge Troubleshooting bad cell that abruptly went from >90 Ah to 25 Ah in less than 1 week .

NiMH batteries DIT Nuna: drove 1877 miles averaging 55. Lithium Ion batteries Phoenix Motorcars SUT: charged 50 times in 10 minutes with no degradation in 2007.EV Record Holders AC Propulsion tZero: drove 302 miles on a single charge at 60 MPH in 2003.97 MPH on solar power in 2007. LiPo batteries . 130 mile range Solectria Sunrise: drove 375 miles on a single charge in 1996.

Future EV Batteries Stanford University Silicon Nanowire electrodes have 3X capacity improvement expected for Lithium batteries Not technically a battery. 1M+ cycle energy storage approaching Lithium battery capacity . but MIT Nanotube ultracapacitors have very high power.