# Fuzzy logic application to unit

commitment

Outline
• Objective
• Key words
• Introduction
• Unit commitment problem
• Constraints
• Fuzzy logic based development
• Algorithm
Member function formulation
Fuzzy if-then rules
defuzzification
• Conclusion

OBJECTIVE
• A fuzzy logic-based approach achieves a logical and
feasible economical cost of operation of the power
system while meeting the load demand and spinning
reserve requirements.
• The approach makes it easier to manipulate and
solve many problems, particularly where the
mathematical model is not explicitly known, or is
difficult to solve.

Key words
• Fuzzy logic
• Unit Commitment
• Defuzzification
• Fuzzy Rules.
Introduction
• It increased attention in recent years because of its
usefulness in reducing the need for complex
mathematical models in problem solving.
• Fuzzy logic employs linguistic terms which deal with
the causal relationship between input and output
variables.
• Fuzzy logic is a technique which approximates
reasoning, while allowing decisions to be made
efficiently.

Unit commitment problem
Problem because of the some
Uncertainty (unpredictable) of particular aspects:
• the availability of fuel and its unpredictable cost,
• water discharge rates, and
• losses caused by reactive flows
Constraints
It must be considered to reach a feasible solution such as:
• spinning reserve.
• thermal unit constraints:
• must-run units
• fuel constraints
• Security constraints: i.e. transmission and generation

Spinning Reserve Constraint
• Available generating capacity always exceeds
demand by a certain margin.
• It is used to describe the total amount of
generation available from all units in the
system, minus the present load and losses
being supplied.
• If one unit is lost ,there must be ample reserve
on the other units to make up for the loss in a
specified time period.

Thermal Unit Constraints
A thermal unit undergo only gradual temperature
changes..
• Minimum up time : once the unit is running, it
should not be turned off immediately.
• Minimum down time: once the unit is decommitted,
there is minimum time before it can be recommitted.
• Crew constraints: if a plant consists of two or more
units , they can not be turned on at the same time
since there are not enough crew members to attend
both units while starting up.

Constraints
• Must run constraint
Some units are given must run status during certain
times of year for reason of voltage support on
transmission network.
• Fuel constraint
A system in which some units have limited fuel , or
else have to burn a specified amount of fuel in a
given time, presents a most challenging unit
commitment problem.
Fuzzy-Logic-based unit commitment
problem
2. Incremental cost
3. Start-up cost i.e,hot start and cold start (including
maintenance and crew expenses)
4. Production cost
UNIT COMMITMENT SOLUTION
METHODS

The techniques for the solution of unit
commitment problem are:

Priority list schemes
Dynamic programming (DP)
Lagrange relation (LR)
PRIORITY LIST SCHEMES
• The simplest UC solution method consists of
creating a priority list of units.
• Priority list means making a list of units that
may be turned ON during each period such
that load requirements are satisfied with
minimum production cost of each unit.
PRIORITY LIST SCHEME:
It is exhaustive if dimensionality of problem increases
that is for large no. of generating units say 40.
Also it works on simple theoretical assumptions like:

1) No load costs are zero.
2) Unit input output characteristics are linear.
3) Start up costs are of fixed amount.
DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING SOLUTION:
DP has many advantages over priority list scheme
particularly the reduction in dimensionality of problem.
The assumptions of priority list scheme are modified as:
1. A state consists of an array of units with specified units
operating and rest are offline.
2. The start up cost of a unit is independent of time it has
been offline.
3. There are no costs for shutting down a unit.
APPROACH

It has many disadvantages for large power
systems with large generating units because of
necessity of forcing the DP solution to search
over a small number of commitment states to
reduce the number of combinations that must
be tested in each time period.
LAGRANGE RELAXATION METHOD
• It overcomes the disadvantage of forward DP
approach.
• its based on dual optimization approach.
• A new variable U
t
i
is introduced as:
U
t
i
= 0 if unit is offline during period t
U
t
i
= 1 if unit is online during period t

Constraints

where Fi(Pi ) is generator fuel cost function in quadratic form, ai, bi and ci are
coefficients of unit i, and Pit is the power generation of unit i at time t.
S/t
Power balance constraint:

Spinning reserve constraint

Generation limit constraint
( )
1
2
, ,
, 1
t
i i
Min b P c P ST U U
t t
a
F P
i i i i i i t i t
i t
t i
( | |
| | | | ( |
= + + + ÷
| |
( |
| |
\ . \ . ( |
\ . ¸ ¸
¿¿
÷
,
P U P P
t t t
i i t D L
i
= +
¿
,max
,min
P P P
t
i i
i
s s
Fuzzy Logic Based Development
FUZZY DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING
ALGORITHM
1. Identify fuzzy input and output variables.
2. It normalized between 0 and 1. This normalized value can
be multiplied by a selected scale factor to accommodate
any desired variable.
3. Relate fuzzy input and output variables using fuzzy rules
(If–then).
4. Generate feasible combinations of units considering
minimum up time, minimum down time and spinning
reserve constraint.
5. Generate economic dispatch.
6. Defuzzify the output variable (production cost).
7. Repeat steps 3 to 5 for all intervals.
Step1: Fuzzy Sets Associated With Unit
Commitment
• The sets defining the load capacity of the generator are
as follows:
LCG, MW = {Low, Below average, Average, Above
average, High}
• The incremental cost is stated by the following sets:
IC, Rs = {Zero, Small, Large}
• The sets representing the start– up cost are shown
below:
SUC, Rs = {Low, Medium, High}
• The production cost, chosen as the objective function, is
given by:
PRC,\$ = {Low, Below average, Average, Above average,
High}
Member function Formulation
Member function cont..
Step2: Fuzzy If–Then Rules
• Production cost = {Load capacity of generator} and
{Incremental fuel cost} and {Start–up cost}
LCG
IC
SUC
FUZZY
LOGIC
P C
Fuzzy If–Then Rules cont..

In fuzzy set notation this is written as,
PRC=LCG IC SUC
Hence, the membership function of the production cost,
μ PRC is computed as follows.
μ PRC= (μ LCG μ IC μ SUC)
μ PRC =min(μ LCG, μ IC ,μ SUC)
where μ LCG, μ IC and μ SUC are memberships of load
capacity of generator, incremental fuel cost, and start–up
cost, respectively.
Fuzzy If–Then Rules cont..
Fuzzy If–Then Rules cont..
• Rule 1:
If Load Capacity of Generator is Low and Incremental Cost is
Zero and Start-up Cost is Low
Then Production Cost is Low
• Rule 2:
If Load Capacity of Generator is Below Average and
Incremental Cost is Small and Start-up Cost IS Medium
Then Production Cost is Below Average
• Rule 3:
If Load Capacity of Generator is Average and Incremental Cost
is Zero and Start-up Cost is Medium
Then Production Cost is Average
Fuzzy If–Then Rules cont..
• Rule 4:
If Load Capacity of Generator is Above Average and
Incremental Cost is Small and Start-up Cost is Low
Then Production Cost is Above Average
• Rule 5:
I f Load Capacity of Generator is High and
Incremental Cost is Large and Start-up Cost is High
Then Production Cost is High
Defuzzification
• One of the most commonly used methods of
defuzzification is the centroid or center-of-gravity
method.Using this method, the production cost is
obtained as follows:

where
p(PRC)i = the membership value of the clipped output
PRCi = the quantitative value of the clipped output.
n = the number of the points corresponding to
quantitative value of the output.
( )
( )
Pr
1
1
PRC i PRCi
oductionCost
PRC i
n
i
n
i
µ
µ
=
¿
¿
=
=
Illustration of fuzzy logic approach to unit commitment
with an example:
UNIT CHARCTERISTICS:

1 450
2 530
3 600
4 400
• Using Production cost as the Output variable
• load capacity of generator, Incremental Cost and
Start-up Costs as Input variables
• The fuzzy sets describing LCG, IC, SUP, and PRC
are illustrated
• Note that the ranges of each subset are chosen in
a subjective manner.
• For example, given that the load range that can
be served by the largest generator is between 0-
300 MW, the subset "low- LCG" may be chosen to
be between 0-45 MW. In this context, "high LCG"
could be chosen within a range of 240-300 MW.
This allows a relative comparison of the linguistic
definitions with the numerical values. Similarly,
the subsets for other variables can also be
linguistically defined.

Assigned membership function of Load Capacity of
Generator:

Assigned membership function of Incremental Cost:

Assigned membership function of Start up Cost:

Assigned membership function of Production Cost:

The general fuzzy associative rule for thee unit
commitment problem can be stated as:

Production cost = { Load capacity of genrators} and
{Incremental cost} and
{Start up cost}

Now let the load is 450 MW for 1
st
hr as per the
RULE BASE:
Let all units are commited

i.e

Let unit 1 is supplying 25 MW:

Rule 1: If LCG is low and IC is small and SUC is low then PrC is low.

Rule 2 : If LCG is low and IC is small and SUC is medium then PrC is low.

Rule 3 : If LCG is belowavg.. and IC is small and SUC is low then PrC is low.

Rule 4 : If LCG is belowavg.. and IC is small and SUC is medium then PrC is
Below avg..

Final defuzzified output value of PrC=1120.00 Rs .

Let unit 2 is supplying 100 MW:

Rule 1: If LCG is belowavg and IC is small and SUC is low then PrC is belowavg

Rule 2 : If LCG is belowavg and IC is small and SUC is medium then PrC is belowavg

Rule 3 : If LCG is avg and IC is small and SUC is low then PrC is avg

Rule 4 : If LCG is avg and IC is small and SUC is medium then PrC is avg

Final defuzzfied output value of PrC=3340.00 Rs.

Let unit 3 is supplying 300 MW :

Rule 1: If LCG is high and IC is zero and SUC is high then PrC is high .

Final defuzzfied output value of PrC=6050.00 Rs.

Let unit 4 is supplying 25 MW:

Rule 1: If LCG is low and IC is high and SUC is low then PrC is low .

Rule 2: If LCG is low and IC is high and SUC is low then PrC is low .

Final defuzzfied output value of PrC=1100.00 Rs.

Now adding all costs i.e when all units are commited:

Total PrC=10780.00 Rs.

If unit 1,unit 2,unit 3 are commited:

Unit 1: 25 MW
Unit 2:125 MW
Unit 3:300 MW
Then the total Production cost (PrC)=10510.00 Rs

If unit 2,unit 3,unit 4 are commited:

Unit 2: 130 MW
Unit 3: 300 MW
Unit 4: 20 MW
Then the total Production cost (PrC)=10389.00 Rs

If unit 2,unit 3 are commited:

Unit 2: 150 MW
Unit 3: 300 MW
Then the total Production cost (PrC)=9500.00 Rs

From above conclusions if Unit 2,Uint 3 are commited then the Production cost is LESS .

• Like this the rule bases are formed for different periods with
different loads and Combination of different unit commitments,
the final simulated results of Production costs:

Period(1 hr each)_ Load(MW) Unit commitment
1 2 3 4
Production
cost(PrC) Rs
1 450 1 1 1 1 10780
1 1 1 0 10510
0 1 1 1 10389
0 1 1 0
9500
2 530 1 1 1 1 21613
1 1 1 0 21430
0 1 1 1 21354
0 1 1 0
20471
3 600 1 1 1 1 33475
1 1 1 0
33357
0 1 1 1 33404
4 540 1 1 1 1 45778
1 1 1 0 45301
0 1 1 1 45226
0 1 1 0
44342
Minimum total production cost(Rs) 107670
Sample Simulated results:- When unit 1 shares 25MW:

Production cost=1120.00 Rs
When unit 2 shares 100MW :

Production cost=2510.00 Rs

When unit 3 shares 300MW:

Production cost= 6050.00 Rs

When unit 4 shares 25 MW:

Production cost= 1100.00 Rs
Conclusion
• Using fuzzy logic, logical decisions can be made in
problems when ambiguity exists.
• The problem can be solved using fuzzy logic, and this
method can be applied to any number of units, each
with different operating costs.
• From this approach, we can also conclude that the
outcomes are easily understood in terms of the
logical representation of the rules.