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commitment

Outline

• Objective

• Key words

• Introduction

• Unit commitment problem

• Constraints

• Fuzzy logic based development

• Algorithm

Member function formulation

Fuzzy if-then rules

defuzzification

• Conclusion

OBJECTIVE

• A fuzzy logic-based approach achieves a logical and

feasible economical cost of operation of the power

system while meeting the load demand and spinning

reserve requirements.

• The approach makes it easier to manipulate and

solve many problems, particularly where the

mathematical model is not explicitly known, or is

difficult to solve.

Key words

• Fuzzy logic

• Unit Commitment

• Defuzzification

• Fuzzy Rules.

Introduction

• It increased attention in recent years because of its

usefulness in reducing the need for complex

mathematical models in problem solving.

• Fuzzy logic employs linguistic terms which deal with

the causal relationship between input and output

variables.

• Fuzzy logic is a technique which approximates

reasoning, while allowing decisions to be made

efficiently.

Unit commitment problem

Problem because of the some

Uncertainty (unpredictable) of particular aspects:

• the availability of fuel and its unpredictable cost,

• imprecise load forecasts,

• by the loading of generating units of different fuels,

• water discharge rates, and

• losses caused by reactive flows

Constraints

It must be considered to reach a feasible solution such as:

• spinning reserve.

• thermal unit constraints:

• must-run units

• fuel constraints

• power generation-load balance, and

• Security constraints: i.e. transmission and generation

Spinning Reserve Constraint

• Available generating capacity always exceeds

demand by a certain margin.

• It is used to describe the total amount of

generation available from all units in the

system, minus the present load and losses

being supplied.

• If one unit is lost ,there must be ample reserve

on the other units to make up for the loss in a

specified time period.

Thermal Unit Constraints

A thermal unit undergo only gradual temperature

changes..

• Minimum up time : once the unit is running, it

should not be turned off immediately.

• Minimum down time: once the unit is decommitted,

there is minimum time before it can be recommitted.

• Crew constraints: if a plant consists of two or more

units , they can not be turned on at the same time

since there are not enough crew members to attend

both units while starting up.

Constraints

• Must run constraint

Some units are given must run status during certain

times of year for reason of voltage support on

transmission network.

• Fuel constraint

A system in which some units have limited fuel , or

else have to burn a specified amount of fuel in a

given time, presents a most challenging unit

commitment problem.

Fuzzy-Logic-based unit commitment

problem

1. Load capacity of generators

2. Incremental cost

3. Start-up cost i.e,hot start and cold start (including

maintenance and crew expenses)

4. Production cost

UNIT COMMITMENT SOLUTION

METHODS

The techniques for the solution of unit

commitment problem are:

Priority list schemes

Dynamic programming (DP)

Lagrange relation (LR)

PRIORITY LIST SCHEMES

• The simplest UC solution method consists of

creating a priority list of units.

• Priority list means making a list of units that

may be turned ON during each period such

that load requirements are satisfied with

minimum production cost of each unit.

PRIORITY LIST SCHEME:

It is exhaustive if dimensionality of problem increases

that is for large no. of generating units say 40.

Also it works on simple theoretical assumptions like:

1) No load costs are zero.

2) Unit input output characteristics are linear.

3) Start up costs are of fixed amount.

DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING SOLUTION:

DP has many advantages over priority list scheme

particularly the reduction in dimensionality of problem.

The assumptions of priority list scheme are modified as:

1. A state consists of an array of units with specified units

operating and rest are offline.

2. The start up cost of a unit is independent of time it has

been offline.

3. There are no costs for shutting down a unit.

DISADVANTAGE OF FORWARD DP

APPROACH

It has many disadvantages for large power

systems with large generating units because of

necessity of forcing the DP solution to search

over a small number of commitment states to

reduce the number of combinations that must

be tested in each time period.

LAGRANGE RELAXATION METHOD

• It overcomes the disadvantage of forward DP

approach.

• its based on dual optimization approach.

• A new variable U

t

i

is introduced as:

U

t

i

= 0 if unit is offline during period t

U

t

i

= 1 if unit is online during period t

Constraints

where Fi(Pi ) is generator fuel cost function in quadratic form, ai, bi and ci are

coefficients of unit i, and Pit is the power generation of unit i at time t.

S/t

Power balance constraint:

Spinning reserve constraint

Generation limit constraint

( )

1

2

, ,

, 1

t

i i

Min b P c P ST U U

t t

a

F P

i i i i i i t i t

i t

t i

( | |

| | | | ( |

= + + + ÷

| |

( |

| |

\ . \ . ( |

\ . ¸ ¸

¿¿

÷

,

P U P P

t t t

i i t D L

i

= +

¿

,max

,min

P P P

t

i i

i

s s

Fuzzy Logic Based Development

FUZZY DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

ALGORITHM

1. Identify fuzzy input and output variables.

2. It normalized between 0 and 1. This normalized value can

be multiplied by a selected scale factor to accommodate

any desired variable.

3. Relate fuzzy input and output variables using fuzzy rules

(If–then).

4. Generate feasible combinations of units considering

minimum up time, minimum down time and spinning

reserve constraint.

5. Generate economic dispatch.

6. Defuzzify the output variable (production cost).

7. Repeat steps 3 to 5 for all intervals.

Step1: Fuzzy Sets Associated With Unit

Commitment

• The sets defining the load capacity of the generator are

as follows:

LCG, MW = {Low, Below average, Average, Above

average, High}

• The incremental cost is stated by the following sets:

IC, Rs = {Zero, Small, Large}

• The sets representing the start– up cost are shown

below:

SUC, Rs = {Low, Medium, High}

• The production cost, chosen as the objective function, is

given by:

PRC,$ = {Low, Below average, Average, Above average,

High}

Member function Formulation

Member function cont..

Step2: Fuzzy If–Then Rules

• Production cost = {Load capacity of generator} and

{Incremental fuel cost} and {Start–up cost}

LCG

IC

SUC

FUZZY

LOGIC

P C

Fuzzy If–Then Rules cont..

In fuzzy set notation this is written as,

PRC=LCG IC SUC

Hence, the membership function of the production cost,

μ PRC is computed as follows.

μ PRC= (μ LCG μ IC μ SUC)

μ PRC =min(μ LCG, μ IC ,μ SUC)

where μ LCG, μ IC and μ SUC are memberships of load

capacity of generator, incremental fuel cost, and start–up

cost, respectively.

Fuzzy If–Then Rules cont..

Fuzzy If–Then Rules cont..

• Rule 1:

If Load Capacity of Generator is Low and Incremental Cost is

Zero and Start-up Cost is Low

Then Production Cost is Low

• Rule 2:

If Load Capacity of Generator is Below Average and

Incremental Cost is Small and Start-up Cost IS Medium

Then Production Cost is Below Average

• Rule 3:

If Load Capacity of Generator is Average and Incremental Cost

is Zero and Start-up Cost is Medium

Then Production Cost is Average

Fuzzy If–Then Rules cont..

• Rule 4:

If Load Capacity of Generator is Above Average and

Incremental Cost is Small and Start-up Cost is Low

Then Production Cost is Above Average

• Rule 5:

I f Load Capacity of Generator is High and

Incremental Cost is Large and Start-up Cost is High

Then Production Cost is High

Defuzzification

• One of the most commonly used methods of

defuzzification is the centroid or center-of-gravity

method.Using this method, the production cost is

obtained as follows:

where

p(PRC)i = the membership value of the clipped output

PRCi = the quantitative value of the clipped output.

n = the number of the points corresponding to

quantitative value of the output.

( )

( )

Pr

1

1

PRC i PRCi

oductionCost

PRC i

n

i

n

i

µ

µ

©

=

¿

¿

=

=

Illustration of fuzzy logic approach to unit commitment

with an example:

UNIT CHARCTERISTICS:

LOAD PATTERN:

Period(1 hrs each) Load(MW)

1 450

2 530

3 600

4 400

• Using Production cost as the Output variable

• load capacity of generator, Incremental Cost and

Start-up Costs as Input variables

• The fuzzy sets describing LCG, IC, SUP, and PRC

are illustrated

• Note that the ranges of each subset are chosen in

a subjective manner.

• For example, given that the load range that can

be served by the largest generator is between 0-

300 MW, the subset "low- LCG" may be chosen to

be between 0-45 MW. In this context, "high LCG"

could be chosen within a range of 240-300 MW.

This allows a relative comparison of the linguistic

definitions with the numerical values. Similarly,

the subsets for other variables can also be

linguistically defined.

Assigned membership function of Load Capacity of

Generator:

Assigned membership function of Incremental Cost:

Assigned membership function of Start up Cost:

Assigned membership function of Production Cost:

The general fuzzy associative rule for thee unit

commitment problem can be stated as:

Production cost = { Load capacity of genrators} and

{Incremental cost} and

{Start up cost}

Now let the load is 450 MW for 1

st

hr as per the

load pattern:

RULE BASE:

Let all units are commited

i.e

Let unit 1 is supplying 25 MW:

Rule 1: If LCG is low and IC is small and SUC is low then PrC is low.

Rule 2 : If LCG is low and IC is small and SUC is medium then PrC is low.

Rule 3 : If LCG is belowavg.. and IC is small and SUC is low then PrC is low.

Rule 4 : If LCG is belowavg.. and IC is small and SUC is medium then PrC is

Below avg..

Final defuzzified output value of PrC=1120.00 Rs .

Let unit 2 is supplying 100 MW:

Rule 1: If LCG is belowavg and IC is small and SUC is low then PrC is belowavg

Rule 2 : If LCG is belowavg and IC is small and SUC is medium then PrC is belowavg

Rule 3 : If LCG is avg and IC is small and SUC is low then PrC is avg

Rule 4 : If LCG is avg and IC is small and SUC is medium then PrC is avg

Final defuzzfied output value of PrC=3340.00 Rs.

Let unit 3 is supplying 300 MW :

Rule 1: If LCG is high and IC is zero and SUC is high then PrC is high .

Final defuzzfied output value of PrC=6050.00 Rs.

Let unit 4 is supplying 25 MW:

Rule 1: If LCG is low and IC is high and SUC is low then PrC is low .

Rule 2: If LCG is low and IC is high and SUC is low then PrC is low .

Final defuzzfied output value of PrC=1100.00 Rs.

Now adding all costs i.e when all units are commited:

Total PrC=10780.00 Rs.

If unit 1,unit 2,unit 3 are commited:

Unit 1: 25 MW

Unit 2:125 MW

Unit 3:300 MW

Then the total Production cost (PrC)=10510.00 Rs

If unit 2,unit 3,unit 4 are commited:

Unit 2: 130 MW

Unit 3: 300 MW

Unit 4: 20 MW

Then the total Production cost (PrC)=10389.00 Rs

If unit 2,unit 3 are commited:

Unit 2: 150 MW

Unit 3: 300 MW

Then the total Production cost (PrC)=9500.00 Rs

From above conclusions if Unit 2,Uint 3 are commited then the Production cost is LESS .

• Like this the rule bases are formed for different periods with

different loads and Combination of different unit commitments,

the final simulated results of Production costs:

Period(1 hr each)_ Load(MW) Unit commitment

1 2 3 4

Production

cost(PrC) Rs

1 450 1 1 1 1 10780

1 1 1 0 10510

0 1 1 1 10389

0 1 1 0

9500

2 530 1 1 1 1 21613

1 1 1 0 21430

0 1 1 1 21354

0 1 1 0

20471

3 600 1 1 1 1 33475

1 1 1 0

33357

0 1 1 1 33404

4 540 1 1 1 1 45778

1 1 1 0 45301

0 1 1 1 45226

0 1 1 0

44342

Minimum total production cost(Rs) 107670

Sample Simulated results:- When unit 1 shares 25MW:

Production cost=1120.00 Rs

When unit 2 shares 100MW :

Production cost=2510.00 Rs

When unit 3 shares 300MW:

Production cost= 6050.00 Rs

When unit 4 shares 25 MW:

Production cost= 1100.00 Rs

Conclusion

• Using fuzzy logic, logical decisions can be made in

problems when ambiguity exists.

• The problem can be solved using fuzzy logic, and this

method can be applied to any number of units, each

with different operating costs.

• From this approach, we can also conclude that the

outcomes are easily understood in terms of the

logical representation of the rules.

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