Perception and Emotions

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4.PERCEPTION 1. 2. What is perception? What causes people to have different perceptions of the same situation? Can people be mistaken in their perceptions? Does perception really affect outcomes? . 3.

 Why Is It Important?   Because people’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important.PERCEPTION  What Is Perception?  The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. not on reality itself. .

We interpret what we see and call it reality.  . regardless of the truth of the attribution.  We don’t see reality.  The attribution process guides our behaviour.WHY WE STUDY PERCEPTIONS To better understand how people make attributions about events.

FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION The Perceiver  The Target  The Situation  .

FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION .

PERCEPTUAL ERRORS Attribution Theory  Selective Perception  Halo Effect  Contrast Effects  Projection  Stereotyping  .

ATTRIBUTION THEORY  When individuals observe behaviour.   Distinctiveness  Does the individual act the same way in other situations? Does the individual act the same as others in same situation? Does the individual act the same way over time? Consensus   Consistency  . they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.

The tendency to attribute one’s successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.  Self-Serving Bias  .ATTRIBUTION THEORY  Fundamental Attribution Error  The tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgments about others’ behaviour.

experience. . background.  Halo Effect  Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic. and attitudes.PERCEPTUAL ERRORS  Selective Perception  People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests.  Contrast Effects  A person’s evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered.

PERCEPTUAL ERRORS  Projection  Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. Prejudice   An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group.  Stereotyping  Judging someone on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs. .

the better they perform. or Rosenthal effect. is the phenomenon in which the greater the expectation placed upon people. a play by George Bernard Shaw. Pygmallion Effect The Pygmalion effect.WHY DO PERCEPTIONS AND JUDGMENT MATTER?  Self-Fulfilling Prophecy  A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived by others.[1] The effect is named after Pygmalion.  .

. and don’t be afraid to speak up for things that are important to you. 4. 3. 6. 5.and long-term goals. and act with awareness. Self-assertiveness: Honour your wants. and values. 2. Self-acceptance: Accept who you are without criticism and judgment. Living purposefully: Develop short. Living consciously: Be aware of everything that affects your values and goals. needs.BRANDEN’S SIX PILLARS OF SELF-ESTEEM 1. and make realistic plans to achieve your goals. Personal responsibility: Take responsibility for the decisions you make and the things you do. Personal integrity: Live up to your word and your values.

WHAT ARE EMOTIONS?  Two related terms:   Emotions  Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. Moods  .

.CHOOSING EMOTIONS: EMOTIONAL LABOUR  When an employee expresses organizationallydesired emotions during interpersonal interactions.

and competencies that influence a person's ability to interact with others.EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE  Noncognitive skills.  Five dimensions  Self-awareness  Self-management  Self-motivation  Empathy  Social skills . capabilities.

and stereotyping are helpful and even necessary. Perceptions often affect productivity more than the situation does. such as attribution theory. Does perception really affect outcomes?  . projection. contrast effects. but can and do get us in trouble.SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS 3. halo effect. Can people be mistaken in their perceptions?  Shortcuts. selective perception. 4.