MPW 123 Malaysian Studies

By Hj. Kamal Abd Razak MBA Techno-Entrepreneurship kamalrazak@must.edu.my 012-6550746

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE

MALAYAN UNION

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE

MALAYAN UNION (KESATUAN MALAYA)

• Soon after the Japanese occupation, the British came back to Malaya and introduced temporary military government or BMA (British Military Administration). • On 1st April 1946, the British replaced BMA with the Malayan Union.

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .

000 Note YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .• British Military Administration $10.

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .Why British Introduced Malayan Union? • To combine all scattered administration into one. • To enforce defence and boost economic recovery and progress. • The unification was to assist administration and saved expenditure.

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE . • • British owed to the Chinese and the Indians whom helped them in fighting with the Japanese.Why British Introduced Malayan Union? • To prepare for the locals for own government.

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE . Malayan Union. • A British Governor would be appointed in due course with the help of Government Council and Judiciary Council.e.FEATURES OF THE MALAYAN UNION • Except for Singapore. all Malayan States were united under one central government i.

• State council would be under the central government.FEATURES OF THE MALAYAN UNION • Rulers’ sovereignty would be abolished they would only have the authority in Islamic affairs and customs. YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .

Malayan citizenship was obtained if (a) the foreigner was 18 and above and had resided in Malaya for 10 out 15 years before 15 February 1942. YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .FEATURES OF THE MALAYAN UNION • All races would be given equal rights – Jus Soli Principle . (b) a person who born in Malaya after the forming of the Malayan Union.

• This includes the entry into government services and the right to vote in the general election.FEATURES OF THE MALAYAN UNION • Equal rights for all citizens regardless of race or origin. YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .

Opposition against the Malayan Union • Harold Mac Michael succeeded in getting the Rulers’ signatures through intimidation. YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .

a Malay nationalist. led the Malays to oppose: a) Mac Michael’s intimidation to the Malay Rulers b) Loss of Rulers’ powers c) Effects on the position of the Malays d) Fear that the non-Malays would outnumber the Malays YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .Opposition against the Malayan Union Dato’ Onn Jaafar.

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .

Opposition against the Malayan Union • March 1946. the Malayan Malay Congress chaired by Dato’ Onn met in Kuala Lumpur. established the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) to protect Malay interests YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE . opposed the formation of the Malayan Union. held demonstrations at major towns. attended by 41 organisations.

MALAYAN UNION DEMONSTRATION YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .

Opposition against the Malayan Union • A group of former British officers like Frank Swettenham also opposed YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE . Singapore not included. formation of the Malayan Union undemocratic.Opposition against the Malayan Union • Non-Malays formed the Malayan Democratic Union (MDU).

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .Opposition against the Malayan Union • The British government ignored all protests and Malayan Union was proclaimed on 1 April 1946. • Edward Gent became the Governor of the Malayan Union. • Malay Rulers boycotted the installation ceremony.

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE . • The Malays felt their position threatened because of the Jus Soli principle.THE FAILURE OF MALAYAN UNION • The Malayan Union constitution forced the Malays to think in new direction.

THE FAILURE OF MALAYAN UNION • The Malayan Union would eradicate the power and sovereignty of the Malays Rulers. YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE . • Sir Harold Mac Michael threatened and forced the Malay Rulers to accept the Malayan Union.

immediately after the Japanese occupation. • The Malays were not ready to accept radical changes that would affect their position. YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .THE FAILURE OF MALAYAN UNION • The introduction of Malayan Union was too early. • The locals were still occupied with the Japanese slogan “Asia for Asians”.

THE FAILURE OF MALAYAN UNION • The British government refused to accept the Malays proposal on Malayan Union. • the previous British Administrators in Malaya supported the Malay up rise. YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE . • Sir Harold Mac Michael threats on Malay Rulers challenged the Malay sovereign.

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .THE LOCAL UPRISE AGAINST THE MALAYAN UNION • Dato’ Onn lead the Malays against the Malayan Union and instilled national spirit among them. • He chaired the Pan-Malayan Malay Congress meeting on 29th and 30th March 1946 in Kuala Lumpur. • He established “Pergerakan Melayu Semenanjung” (Peninsular Malay Movement) in January 1946 to defend the rights of the Malays.

THE LOCAL UPRISE AGAINST THE MALAYAN UNION • Through this congress the Malays was advised to boycott the Malayan Union and unite to stage demonstrations on 1st April 1946. YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE . • The Malay rulers were advised not to attend the appointment ceremony of Edward Gent as the first Governor of the Malayan Union.

• The strong fight against the Malayan Union by the Malays caused the Malayan Union to be abolished. • Umno slogan at that time was “Hidup Melayu” and “Hidup Bangsa Melayu” (Long Live Malays and Long Live the Malay Race) then changed to “Merdeka” (Independent).THE LOCAL UPRISE AGAINST THE MALAYAN UNION • United Malay National Organisation (UMNO) was formed by Dato’ Onn on 11th May 1946. YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .

YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .One of the many demonstration against the Malayan Union.

Thank You YOUR FUTURE BEGINS HERE .