ICS 2405: Knowledge-based Systems



To describe the theoretical foundations of Knowledge Based Systems. To apply Knowledge Engineering methodologies to appropriate application areas. To efficiently use the knowledge representation tools and techniques that form the foundation of symbolic reasoning systems.

Sub-Symbolic representation of Knowledge.Content:   Data. 3 . Information and Knowledge Introduction to Knowledge Based Systems (KBS)    Definition Components Types    Knowledge Engineering Knowledge Acquisition and Elicitation Knowledge Representation   Symbolic representation of Knowledge.

Content:  Reasoning and Inferencing   Forward Chaining Backward Chaining Representing common-sense knowledge.  Uncertainty    Case-based reasoning. Knowledge Based System methodologies 4 .

Course Prerequisites and Delivery: Delivery     Lectures. Discussions Seminars. Group projects. 5 .

1994. Aronson. 2000. Complex Cognition by Robert J. Knowledge Engineering for Information Systems by Paul Beynon-Davies. 1992. G. sixth edition by Efraim Turban and Jay E. Design and Development of Knowledge Based Systems by Giovanni Guida and Carlo Tasso. 1992. 6 . 2000. 1993.References        Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems. Information and Knowledge-Based Systems – An Introduction by R. Anderson. 2001. The Essence of Expert Systems by Keith Darlington. Sternberg and Talia BenZeev. Intelligent Systems for Business: Expert Systems with Neural Networks by Fatemeh Zahedi.

Introduction  Intelligence: Covers many cognitive skills. 7 . including    Learning Understanding language The ability to solve problems   Artificial Intelligence addresses all of those. Most progress to date in AI has been made in the area of problem solving  -.concepts and methods for building programs that reason about problems rather than calculate a solution.

by a computer How the knowledge used to make those inferences will be represented inside the machine. 8 . It is concerned with   The concepts and methods of symbolic inference. or reasoning.Introduction   Artificial Intelligence (AI): Its scientific goal is to understand intelligence by building computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior.

indivisible objects within an application. Concepts If the temperature outside Knowledge is 50 C. Information: The implicit functional associations between data in the application. it feels cold. Information and Knowledge    Data: The fundamental.Data. Data 50 C Facts and Figures 9 . Knowledge: The explicit functional associations between items of information and/or data. Value Information The temperature outside is 50 C.

Knowledge – A brief definition   Knowledge: The symbolic representation of aspects of some named universe The definition has two assumptions   We can symbolize knowledge – It can be represented in some way. Symbols The relationship between symbols The rules or procedures for manipulating the symbols 10  Knowledge consists of    . The knowledge domain can be named or referenced in some way.

Tacit knowledge: Unconsciously knowing how to do something. Declarative knowledge: Knowing that something is true or false.  Further classification includes    Procedural knowledge: Knowing how to do something.  Posteriori knowledge: Represents information that is verified using sensory experiences.  Examples are mathematical laws. logical statements.Knowledge Classification  Knowledge can be classified into  Priori knowledge: Universally true and cannot be denied without contradiction.  Knowledge can be denied based on new knowledge without the need for contradictions. 11 .

computer-based problem-solver. 12 . hypothetical reasoning. model-based reasoning.Definition of KBS   A knowledge based system (KBS) is a software system capable of supporting the explicit representation of knowledge in some specific competence domain and of exploiting it through appropriate reasoning mechanisms in order to provide high-level problem-solving performance. would require advanced reasoning capabilities. such as deduction. KBS is a specific. dedicated. analogical reasoning. learning. abduction. which. able to face complex problems. etc. if solved by man.

g. a KBS is composed of two parts   A central part which implements the basic problem-solving capabilities of the KBS. user interface. an explanation system etc. A peripheral part which is aimed at providing additional functions necessary for a practical and effective use of the KBS e. 13 .Components of a KBS  From an abstract point of view.

Components of a KBS Domain Knowledge Knowledge Base Reasoning Mechanism Problem Working Memory Solution Knowledge-Based System 14 .

Types of KBS  In the early nineties several other types of "reasoning" systems became a commercial proposition. 15 . Machine learning systems : Knowledge is acquired from training on a set of cases Case-based reasoning systems: A loose term referring to systems that are able to find a matching case in a large set of cases (sometimes based on decision tree like formalisms). These include:    Neural networks: Characterized by a way of reasoning not based on explicit rules and whose knowledge is acquired by training the system more or less automatically on a set of cases from a particular domain.

The main difference between the instances is how this knowledge is represented and obtained.Types of KBS  Genetic algorithm systems: Can find a solution to a problem by applying principles from genetics to a set of components   They are different instances of the general class of KBS. 16 . systems that apply knowledge to infer new information from a set of inputs.

Introduction to Knowledge Engineering    Any application that requires access to specialist knowledge is a potential application area for introduction of KBS technology. Design of an Explanation facility. whether it be in the public or private sector. Design of an Inference strategy. in commerce or industry” Knowledge engineering consists of five activities:       Knowledge Acquisition. Knowledge Refinement and Validation Knowledge Representation. Software Design Implementation  Other things to be considered include   17 . Knowledge Engineering is the process of developing knowledge based systems in any field. System Validation.

Knowledge Engineering indicates a professional approach to development with respect to     Qualifications Skills Personality Attributes 18 .Introduction to Knowledge Engineering   Practitioners of knowledge engineering are called Knowledge Engineers.

Tasks of a Knowledge Engineer     Extracting knowledge from people Representing it in some form Including it in a computer program which makes use of that knowledge Validating the software system produced 19 .

Financial and Environmental constraints Be bound by a professional code of conduct Update their knowledge and skills Adhere to rules.Tasks of a Knowledge Engineer  A Knowledge Engineer must –          Apply Methods Use Tools Apply Quality Controls Have Standards Plan and Manage Projects Take into account Human. regulations and legal requirements 20 .