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Foundations of Knowledge-based Systems

Lecture 2


Recap Knowledge Representation

Propositional Logic Predicate Logic Validity and Soundness

Recap Definition of KBS

A knowledge based system (KBS) is a software system capable of supporting the explicit representation of knowledge in some specific competence domain and of exploiting it through appropriate reasoning mechanisms in order to provide high-level problem-solving performance. KBS is a specific, dedicated, computer-based problemsolver, able to face complex problems, which, if solved by man, would require advanced reasoning capabilities, such as deduction, abduction, hypothetical reasoning, modelbased reasoning, analogical reasoning, learning, etc.

Typical problems

Diagnosis Scheduling Planning

Recap Components of a KBS

Domain Knowledge Knowledge Base

Reasoning Mechanism Problem Working Memory


Knowledge-Based System

Knowledge can be classified into

Knowledge Classification

Priori knowledge: Universally true and cannot be denied without contradiction.

Examples are mathematical laws, logical statements.

Posteriori knowledge: Represents information that is verified using sensory experiences.

This Knowledge can be denied based on new knowledge without the need for contradictions.

Further classification includes

Procedural knowledge: Knowing how to do something. Declarative knowledge: Knowing that something is true or false. Tacit knowledge: Unconsciously knowing how to do something. 5 Explicit knowledge:

Knowledge Representation

This is the way that knowledge is stored in a program. This implies that

There is a systematic way to store the information. The knowledge is coded into the program.

Knowledge representation and reasoning - the study of formal ways of extracting information from symbolically represented knowledge

Existing computer languages can be used and the knowledge is stored in memory. The stored knowledge and facts can be used in reasoning.

Knowledge Representation

Knowledge can be represented in a variety of ways. The predominant knowledge representation schemes are

Frames and production rules. Connections and weights.

Knowledge Representation

Some desirable features of any knowledge representation scheme include:

Completeness: Should support the acquisition of all aspects of the knowledge. Conciseness: Allow efficient acquisition so that knowledge is stored compactly and is easily retrieved. Computational efficiency: It should be possible to use the knowledge rapidly and without the need for excessive computation. Transparency: Should be such that it is possible to understand its behaviour and how it arrives at conclusions. Explicity: The important things should be explicit but the details suppressed but available in case it is required in future. 8

Why use special tools

Traditional languages emphasize

Efficiency Maintainability Portability

Not representational power

Traditional language control is

Primitive Implicit in statement ordering Pretty much fixed at compile time

Good for algorithmic work, but knowledge is implicit not explicit.


Why use special tools

There is no single representation scheme that embodies all the above characteristics. Each of the representation schemes is suitable for certain types of application domain.


Types of representation schemes

Some popular representation schemes include

Rule-based schemes: Information is stored as abstract rules that have general applicability.

Learning is explicit.

Instance based models: Do not operate on explicit rules. Exhibit rule-like behavior by being exposed to a series of examples.

Learning is implicit.


Logic and other schemes

Logic: Extensively used in Al programs. Main purpose of logic: The soundness or unsoundness of arguments. Typically, an argument consists of statements called propositions, from which other statement(s) called conclusion(s) are claimed to follow. This is the basis of propositional logic.


Propositional Logic

Proposition: A sentence that is either true or false.

Example: The following are propositions:

Sam is a happy man" "All cats are good pets"

(1) (2)

Propositions, because each is either true or false. The following phrases are not propositions:

"Amy's pet" "Oh dear me!"

(3) (4)

Statements in propositional logic are usually expressed symbolically.


Propositional Logic
Example: The following inference:

"If Sam is a happy man then Sam is a teacher" Could be symbolically expressed as:

A: Sam is a happy man B: Sam is a teacher

This could be expressed in propositional logic as:

if A then B

Logic notation: A B (meaning proposition A implies proposition B).


Propositional Logic

This is an example of a rule of inference called modus ponens. This says that if proposition A is true, and the rule of inference A B is true, then B will also be true.

Propositions can be combined using logical connectives e.g.

"If I listen to music and the room is warm then I fall asleep

Rewriting this symbolically:

Proposition A: I listen to music Proposition B: The room is warm Proposition C: I fall asleep

Propositional Logic

Then this can be written in logic notation as: ABC

Connective symbols The symbols shown in the table are used to denote some of the most common connectives used in propositional logic.


Propositional Logic
Symbol Meaning -A Not A AB AB AB Interpretation Negation. Negation of proposition A is true if A is false and vice versa A and B Conjunction. A and B only true if A and B are both true, otherwise false A or B Disjunction. A or B is true if A is true or B is true. A implies B Implication. If A is true and A implies B is true, then B is true. If A is false and A implies B is true then anything goes. That is, B could be true or false, since implication says nothing about case when A is false

Propositional Logic
Truth table The meanings of the connectives and their results are summarized in the table

A 1 1 0 0

B A A B A B A B 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1


Predicate Logic

Propositional logic is inadequate for solving some problems because a proposition has to be treated as a single entity that is either true or false. Predicate logic overcomes this by allowing a proposition to be broken down into two components.

Arguments Predicates.

It allows the use of variables, in addition to supporting the rules of inference derived from propositional logic (i.e. modus ponens etc.).


Predicate Logic
Example Consider the proposition:

Kamau has brown hair.

This could be written in predicate logic notation as:

HAS (Kamau, short hair)

Predicate: HAS Arguments: Kamau and brown hair.

In the example,


Predicate Logic
Quantifiers in predicate logic Predicate logic also allows for the use of quantifiers.

This means that the language can be extended to propositions that refer to a range of a variable. For example, consider the proposition:

Every man loves a woman.

This can be expressed in predicate logic using quantifiers as:


Predicate Logic
x, Man(x) y, s.t. Woman(y) Loves(x, y)

Which reads:

For any object x in the world if x is a Man, then there exists an object y, such that y is a woman and x Loves y.

Quantifiers : The universal quantifier since it refers to all objects in the (male) population. : The existential quantifier since it refers to at least one object in the (female) population.


Predicate Logic

Now consider the proposition: every Welshman is a Man. This would be expressed in formal logic as:

x, Welshman(x) Man(x)

Which reads:

for any object x, if x is a Welshman, then x is a man.


Predicate Logic

Then from the two facts it can be concluded, using the rules of inference, that the following fact must be true:

x, Welshman(x) y, s.t. Woman(y)

Loves(x, y)

That is, every Welshman loves a woman. The example seems to lead to an obvious conclusion. However, for other examples such intuitive conclusions would be less obvious.


Logic: Validity and Soundness

Consider the following deductive argument:

If you are in Chiromo, then you are in Nairobi If you are in Nairobi, then you are in Kenya

Therefore if you are in Chiromo you are in Kenya

Both premises and conclusion happen to be true statements, But if you substitute Kampala for Nairobi the
argument will have false premises.

Therefore, there are arguments that intuitively seem to be valid in the sense that the conclusions somehow follow from the premises, but which still have something missing.


Logic: Validity and Soundness


A deductive argument (or argument form) is valid if and only if it is impossible for its conclusion to be false when its premises are true.


A deductive argument is sound if it is valid and has true premises.


Advantages of formal logic

There is a set of rules called rules of inference by which facts that are known to be true can be used to derive other facts, which must also be true. The truth of any new proposition can be checked, in a well-specified manner, against the facts that are already known to be true.

Logical inferences will only guarantee the truth of a conclusion if the premises leading to the conclusion are also true.



Knowledge Base Systems

Components Types

Knowledge Classification Knowledge Representation

Propositional Logic Predicate Logic