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In mathematics, a polynomial (from Greek poly, "many" and medieval Latin binomium, "binomial") is an expression of finite length constructed from variables (also known as indeterminates) and constants, using only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents. For example, x2 − 4x + 7 is a polynomial, but x2 − 4/x + 7x3/2 is not, because its second term involves division by the variable x (4/x) and because its third term contains an exponent that is not a whole number (3/2). The term "polynomial" can also be used as an adjective, for quantities that can be expressed as a polynomial of some parameter, as in "polynomial time" which is used in computational complexity theory.

Polynomials appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics and science. For example, they are used to form polynomial equations, which encode a wide range of problems, from elementary word problems to complicated problems in the sciences; they are used to define polynomial functions, which appear in settings ranging from basic chemistry and physics to economics and social science; they are used in calculus and numerical analysis to approximate other functions. In advanced mathematics, polynomials are used to construct polynomial rings, a central concept in abstract algebra and algebraic geometry.

Overview

A polynomial is either zero, or can be written as the sum of one or more non-zero terms. The number of terms is finite. These terms consist of a constant (called the coefficient of the term) which may be multiplied by a finite number of variables (usually represented by letters). Each variable may have an exponent that is a non-negative integer, i.e., a natural number. The exponent on a variable in a term is called the degree of that variable in that term, the degree of the term is the sum of the degrees of the variables in that term, and the degree of a polynomial is the largest degree of any one term. Since x = x1, the degree of a variable without a written exponent is one. A term with no variables is called a constant term, or just a constant. The degree of a constant term is 0. The coefficient of a term may be any number from a specified set. If that set is the set of real numbers, we speak of "polynomials over the reals". Other common kinds of polynomials are polynomials with integer coefficients, polynomials with complex coefficients, and polynomials with coefficients that are integers modulo of some prime number p. In most of the examples in this section, the coefficients are integers.

**What does each prefix mean?
**

mono Bi Tri one two three

**What about poly?
**

one or more A polynomial is a monomial or a sum/difference of monomials. Important Note!! An expression is not a polynomial if there is a variable in the denominator.

**State whether each expression is a polynomial. If it is, identify it.
**

1) 7y - 3x + 4

trinomial 2) 10x3yz2

5 7y 3) 2 2y

monomial

not a polynomial

**Which polynomial is represented by
**

X X X2 1 1 X

1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 2 x2 + 2x + 2 x2 + 3x + 2 I’ve got no idea!

The degree of a monomial is the sum of the exponents of the variables. Find the degree of each monomial.

1) 5x2 2

2) 4a4b3c

8 3) -3 0

**To find the degree of a polynomial, find the largest degree of the terms.
**

1) 8x2 - 2x + 7 Degrees: 2 1 0 Which is biggest? 2 is the degree! 2) y7 + 6y4 + 3x4m4 Degrees: 7 4 8 8 is the degree!

**Find the degree of
**

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 0 2 3 5 10

5 x

–

3 2 xy

+4

**A polynomial is normally put in ascending or descending order.
**

What is ascending order? Going from small to big exponents. What is descending order? Going from big to small exponents.

**Put in descending order:
**

8x - 3x2 + x4 - 4 x4 - 3x2 + 8x - 4 2) Put in descending order in terms of x: 12x2y3 - 6x3y2 + 3y - 2x -6x3y2 + 12x2y3 - 2x + 3y

1)

**3) Put in ascending order in terms of y: 12x2y3 - 6x3y2 + 3y - 2x -2x + 3y - 6x3y2 + 12x2y3
**

4) Put in ascending order:

5a3 - 3 + 2a - a2 -3 + 2a - a2 + 5a3

**Write in ascending order in terms of y: x4 – x3y2 + 4xy – 2x2y3
**

1. 2.

3. 4.

x4 + 4xy – x3y2– 2x2y3 – 2x2y3 – x3y2 + 4xy + x4 x4 – x3y2– 2x2y3 + 4xy 4xy – 2x2y3 – x3y2 + x4

THANK YOU FOR BEING SUCH A WONDERFUL AUDIENCE

AN INTERACTIVE PRESENTATION BY-

Anirudh Mrivastava Pratibh Manchanda Priy Ranjan Prakash Chahat Agarwal

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