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Introduction

Structure A structure is a combination of parts fastened together to create a supporting framework, which may be part of a building, ship, machine, space vehicle, engine or some other system. Vibrations

Cause Effect

Stage I. Devise a mathematical or physical model of

Stage II. From the model, write the equations of

motion.

Stage III. Evaluate the structure response to a relevant

specific excitation.

FREE UNDAMPED VIBRATION Translation vibration

Torsional vibration

For undamped free vibration the total energy in the vibrating system is

constantthroughout the cycle. Therefore the maximum potential energy V(max), is equal to the maximum kinetic energy T(max) , although these maxima occur at different times during the cycle of vibration. Furthermore, since the total energy is constant,

T + V = constant,

d(T + V)/dt = 0 = (k/m)1/2 Condition of stability

The most common types of damping are

Viscous dry friction hysteretic

Case 1 less than 1, that is, damping less than critical The motion of the body is therefore an exponentially decaying

harmonic oscillation

Case 2 = 1; that is, critical damping Critical damping represents the limit of periodic motion; hence

the displaced body isrestored to equilibrium in the shortest possible time, and without oscillation or overshoot.

Case 3 greater than critical, Since both values of s are negative the motion is the sum of two

exponential decays

Equation Of Motion - m = Fd kx

Experiments on the damping that occurs in solid

materials and structures that have been subjected to cyclic stressing have shown the damping force to be independent of frequency internal, or material, damping is referred to as hysteretic damping. the induced stress is = 0sin (Vt+ )

FORCED VIBRATION

The equation of motion is

Resonance

The phenomenon known as resonance occurs when

the forcing frequency is equal to the natural frequency, that is when v/ = 1. The maximum value of X/Xs actually occurs at values of v/ less than unity:

Structure supported on a foundation subjected to harmonic vibration

Equation Off Motion

Vibration Isolation

The force transmitted to the foundation is the sum of

the spring force and the damper force. Thus the transmitted force = kx + c and Fx the amplitude of the transmitted force is given by

Response of a Coulomb damped structure to a simple harmonic exciting force with constant amplitude

The equation of motion is non-linear because the

The equation of motion can be written

Shock excitation

Some structures are subjected to shock or impulse

X(t) =

A structure exposed to a fluid stream is subjected to a

harmonically varying force in a direction perpendicular to the stream. This is because of eddy, or vortex, shedding on alternate sides of the structure on the leeward side.

Damping In Structures

Sources of damping Inherent damping Hysteretic or material damping Damping in structural joints Acoustic radiation damping Air pumping Aerodynamic damping Added damping High damping alloys Composite materials Viscoelastic materials Constrained layer damping Vibration dampers and absorbers

Vibration Isolation

The force transmitted to the foundation is the sum of

the spring force and the damper force. Motion Transmission TR = X/A =

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