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You are on page 1of 59

Dynamics

1. Definition of Force and Mass

2. Newton 1st, 2nd & 3rd Laws of motion

4. Free body Diagrams

3. Types of Forces: Normal, Frictional,

Tension and Gravitation Forces. etc

3.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 2

Lesson Outcomes

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

1. define force, mass and inertia.

2. state Newtons laws of motion.

3. explain everyday phenomena in terms of Newtons

laws of motion.

4. use free-body diagrams to solve problems involving

forces and accelerations.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 3

Dynamics

Displacement, velocity and acceleration are basic

kinematics quantities. However, when we begin to

think about why objects move, this is the science of

Dynamics.

The influence that changes the basic kinematics

quantities of a particle is called a force.

A force, simply put, is a push or a pull.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 4

Force

The concept of force gives us a quantitative description of the

interaction between two bodies or between a body and its

environment.

When a force involves direct contact between two bodies, we

call it a contact force. An example is frictional force.

There are also non-contact forces or action-at-a-distance

forces, including gravitational and electrical forces, which act

even when the bodies are separated by empty space.

The force of gravitational attraction that the earth exerts on a

body is called the weight of the body.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 5

The idea of a force is made explicit in

Newtons laws of motion.

Sir Isaac Newton

(British Physicist)

1642-1727

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 6

Newtons 1

st

Law of Motion

(The Law of Inertia)

Inertia is the natural tendency of an object to remain at

rest or in motion at constant speed along a straight line.

Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform

motion (constant velocity) in a straight line, unless a net

external force acts upon it.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 7

Newtons 2

nd

Law of Motion

The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the

net force acting on it in the same direction.

=

a m F

net

The proportionality constant is a quantity known as the mass of

the body denoted by m. Mass is a measure of an objects inertia.

net

F a

Net force is the vector sum of all the forces

acting on it.

SI Unit of Force: kg.m/s

2

= newton (N)

=

a m F

net

For a given net force, the magnitude of

acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass.

m

a

1

When EF

net

= 0,

If a = 0, then EF = 0

then a = 0

1st Law

(Newtons 1

st

Law is a special case of 2

nd

Law)

=

a m F

net

Newtons 2

nd

Law of Motion

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 10

Newtons 3

rd

Law of Motion

To every action there is always an equal

and opposite reaction.

Action and reaction of forces are equal and opposite.

The two forces acts on different bodies,

so resultant force = 0.

BA AB

F F

=

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 11

The astronaut pushes on the spacecraft

with a force +P and it pushes back on him

with a force P.

Example:

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 12

Conceptual Question

Why do you forward when your car

suddenly comes to a halt? Why are you

pressed backward against the seat when

your car rapidly accelerates? In your

explanation, refer to the appropriate one of

Newtons three laws of motion.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 13

Reasoning and Solution

When the car comes to a sudden halt, the upper part of the body

continues forward (as predicted by Newton's first law) if the force

exerted by the lower back muscles is not great enough to give the

upper body the same deceleration as the car. The lower portion of

the body is held in place by the force of friction exerted by the car

seat and the floor.

When the car rapidly accelerates, the upper part of the body tries to

remain at a constant velocity (again as predicted by Newton's first

law). If the force provided by the lower back muscles is not great

enough to give the upper body the same acceleration as the car, the

upper body appears to be pressed backward against the st as the car

moves forward.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 14

Conceptual Question

The net external force acting on an object is

zero. Is it possible for the object to be traveling

with a velocity that is not zero? If your answer

is yes, state whether any conditions must be

placed on the magnitude and direction of the

velocity. If your answer is no, provide a reason

for your answer.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 15

Reasoning and Solution

If the net external force acting on an object is zero, it is

possible for the object to be traveling with a nonzero

velocity. According to Newtons second law, EF = ma,

if the net external force EF is zero, the acceleration a is

also zero. If the acceleration is zero, the velocity must be

constant, both in magnitude and in direction. Thus, an

object can move with a constant nonzero velocity when

the net external force is zero.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 16

When you are solving a dynamics problem, it is

very helpful to draw a free body diagram.

In such a diagram, a sketch of each object in the

problem is drawn, showing all the forces acting

on it.

Free body diagram

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 17

The weight of an object is the force due to the attraction

between it and the Earth.

Some common forces

Weight

W = mg

W

The weight always acts downward, towards the center of

the earth.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 18

u

Normal Force

When an object is pressed against a surface, there is

a force in the direction of the normal to the surface.

W = mg

F

N

= mg

W = mg

F

N

= mg cos u

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 19

When a rope is attached to an object and pulled taut, the

rope is under tension.

Tension

The direction of tension is always away from the object.

W = mg

W = mg

W = mg

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 20

When an object slides over a surface there is a force

resisting the motion. The frictional force is parallel

to the surface and in the direction opposite to that of

the motion.

Friction

f

motion

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 21

(a) Weight W and the normal reaction force F

N

on a stationary body.

(b) The resultant frictional force F

sF

due to the applied force F

T

but

with no resultant motion,

(c) the resultant frictional force F

kF

due to the applied force F

T

that

causes the body to move with velocity v.

w

F

N

w w

F

N

F

N

F

T

F

T

F

sF

F

kF

v

(a) (b) (c)

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 22

Frictional Force

Normal force, F

N

is one of the force that a surface exerts on an

object with which it is in contact-namely the component that

perpendicular to the surface.

The component parallel to the surface is the frictional forces,

which are

static friction force, F

sF

when the body at rest (stationary).

kinetic friction, F

kF

when the body is moving

By definition F

N

and F

sF

or F

kF

are always perpendicular to each

other.

The direction of the friction force is always such as to oppose

relative motion of the two surfaces.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 23

Static Friction F

SF

Frictional forces can act even

when there is no relative motion

of the two surfaces in contact.

This is called static friction

force.

When the force F

T

is gradually

increased, the frictional force F

sF

also increases staying equal in

magnitude to F

T

as long as the

body remains at rest.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 24

Static Friction

For some given pair of surfaces the maximum value of F

sF

depends on the normal force F

N

and can have any value between

zero and a maximum value just before the body moves.

In such cases it is found that F

sF

is approximately proportional to

F

N

, i.e

N SF SF N SF

F F F F ~ Thus

where the proportionality constant

SF

is called the

coefficient of static friction.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 25

Kinetic Friction F

kF

At some point, F

T

becomes greater than the maximum

frictional force F

sF

that the surface can exert and the body

starts to slide along the surface with velocity v.

In many instances, the magnitude of the sliding friction F

kF

is

found to be approximately proportional to F

N

, that is

N kF kF N kF

F F F F = Thus

where the proportionality constant

kF

is called

the coefficient of kinetic friction.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 26

Typical Coefficients of Friction

Rubber on concrete(dry) 0.80 0.90

Steel on steel 0.57 0.74

Glass on glass 0.40 0.94

Wood on leather 0.40 0.50

Copper on steel 0.36 0.53

Rubber on concrete (wet) 0.25 0.30

Steel on ice 0.06 0.10

Waxed ski on snow 0.05 0.10

Teflon on Teflon 0.04 0.04

Materials Kinetic,

k

Static,

s

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 27

Measurement of Friction

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 28

Measurement of Friction

If u is small enough that the block does not slide, then we must

have

0

0

= =

= =

SF x

N y

F sin mg F

cos mg F F

u

u

c

N SF SF c N SF

F F F F

u

u

tan Thus

have We tan

sF

=

= =

u cos

N

F

mg =

u sin mg F

SF

=

u tan

N SF

F F =

By eliminating mg from (1) and (2) gives

Increase u until the block just begins to slide. At this critical

angle u

c

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 29

In general, if an object is on the verge of slipping

when the surface on which it rests is tilted at an

angle u

c

, the coefficient of static friction between

the object and the surface is

sF

= tan u

c

.

.

c N sF c N SF

tan F tan F F u u = = =

sF

or

Its independent of the mass of the object.

F

sf

has a maximum value.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 30

Apparent Weight

Apparent weight is the force that the object exerts on

the scale with which it is in contact, in an

acceleration system.

For example, the sensation of feeling heavier or lighter

in an accelerating elevator.

The apparent weight of a passenger with a mass m

riding in an elevator with acceleration a

y

can be

understood better by looking at the free body diagram.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 31

The free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the person

riding in the elevator accelerating upwards at a

y

.

y N

ma W F F = =

normal force acting on the body)

( )

y

y N

a g m

ma W F

+ =

+ =

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 32

) a g ( m F

y N

+ =

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 33

Weightlessness

When a

y

is positive, the elevator accelerated upward, and F

a

is

greater than the passengers weight, w=mg.

When the elevator is accelerated downward, a

y

is negative, and

F

a

is less than the weight, w=mg.

When the chain broken the elevator accelerated with a

y

= -g,

when its in free fall. In this case F

a

=0 and the passenger seems

to be weightless.

( ) 0 = = g g m F

a

Similarly, an astronaut orbiting the earth in a space capsule

experiences apparent weightlessness.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 34

Example

A 5.0 kg salmon is weighed by hanging it from a a fish scale attached to

the ceiling of an elevator. What is the apparent weight of the salmon,

W

a

, if the elevator (a) is at rest, (b) moves with an upward acceleration

2.5 m/s

2

, or (c) moves with a downward acceleration of 3.2 m/s

2

F

T

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 35

Solution: The weight W = mg,

(a) F = F

T

W = ma

y

= 0, (a

y

=0)

So The apparent weight, W

a

=F

T

= mg = 5.0 kg (9.81m/s

2

) = 49N

(b) It moves up so F = W

a

W =ma

y

= ma where

a

y

= 2.5m/s

2.

Thus

W

a

= mg + ma = 49N + (5kg)(2.5m/s

2

) = 62 N

(c) It moves down, F = W

a

-W = ma

y

= -ma, where

a

y

= -3.2m/s

2

Thus

W

a

=

mg ma = 49N - (5kg)(3.2m/s

2

) = 33N

It is observed that when it moves (accelerating) up its apparent weight

is greater than the original weight and when it moves down is less.

F

T

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 36

Example:

A block of mass m

1

slides on a frictionless tabletop. It is connected

to a string that passes over a pulley and suspends a mass m

2

. Find

the acceleration of the masses and the tension in the string.

F

N

F

N

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 37

To solve:

There is no friction in the pulley and we consider the string is

massless.

The tension T is the same throughout and it applies a force of

magnitude T to each body.

The weights are m

1

g and m

2

g.

If the string does not stretch, the two masses must move equal

distances in equal time. Their speeds are equal at any instance.

When the speeds change, they changed with equal amounts and gives

equal acceleration at the same time.

Draw separate free body diagram for each body and apply

Newtons 2

nd

Law

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 38

F

N

For m

2

:

E F

x

= 0

E F

y

= W

2

T

= m

2

g T = m

2

a (2)

Combine (1) and (2):

m

2

g m

1

a = m

2

a

For m

1

:

E F

y

= F

N

W

1

= 0

E F

x

= T = m

1

a (1)

( )

2 1

2

m m

g m

a

+

=

( )

2 1

2 1

1

m m

g m m

a m T

+

= =

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 39

F

N

For m

2

:

E F

x

= 0

E F

y

= W

2

T

= m

2

g T = m

2

a (2)

Combine (1) and (2):

m

2

g m

1

a = m

2

a

For m

1

:

E F

y

= F

N

W

1

= 0

E F

x

= T = m

1

a (1)

( )

2 1

2

m m

g m

a

+

=

( )

2 1

2 1

1

m m

g m m

a m T

+

= =

( )( )

( )

m/s 27 3

2 4

81 9 2

.

.

=

+

=

= (4)(3.27) = 13.1 N

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 40

Exercise

A 4-kg block is connected to a 2-kg block by

means of a massless rope through a frictionless

pulley as shown in the figure. If the coefficient of

static friction between the 4-kg block and the

surface is 0.3, what is the acceleration of the

blocks?

mg

F

N

F

f

T

mg

T

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 41

mg

F

N

F

f

T

mg

T

y

x

For the 2-kg block

:

E F

x

= 0

E F

y

= W

2

T

= m

2

g T = m

2

a (2)

For the 4-kg block:

E F

y

= F

N

W

1

= 0

E F

x

= T F

f

= m

1

a

T m

1

g = m

1

a (1)

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 42

Add (1) and (2):

m

2

g m

1

g = m

1

a + m

2

a

( )

2 1

1 2

m m

g m g m

a

+

=

g m a m T

1 1

+ =

( )( ) ( )( )( )

( )

2

m/s 3 1

2 4

81 9 4 3 0 81 9 2

.

. . .

=

+

=

( ) ( )( )( ) 81 9 4 3 0 3 1 4 . . . + =

T m

1

g = m

1

a (1) m

2

g T = m

2

a (2)

From (1):

= 17.0 N

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 43

Example

A jet plane is flying with a constant speed along a straight line at an angle

of 30 above the horizontal. The plane has a weight,

W = 86500 N, an its engine provide a forward thrust, T = 103000 N. What

are the lift force, L, perpendicular to the wings and the air resistance force,

R, opposite the motion act on the plane?

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 44

Solution

N

sin N sin W T R

R T sin W F

x

59800

30 86500 103000 30

0 30

=

= =

= + =

. N cos cos W L

, L cos W F

y

74900 30 86500 30

0 30

= = =

= + =

Example

A flatbed truck slowly tilts its bed upward to dispose of

a 95.0-kg crate. For small angles of tilt the crate stays

put, but when the tilt angle exceeds 23.2 the crate

begins to slide. What is the coefficient of static friction

between the bed of the truck and the crate.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 46

Choose the positive x axis along the surface of the bed. They are

three forces acting on the crate, N

F

, W

g

and F

s.

.

When the crate begins to slide it is in its verge of slipping, The static

force F

s

=-

s

N.

We resolve the force vectors acting on the crate into x and y-

components.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 47

0

u

sin mg W

N F F

N

x

s max , s x , s

x

=

= =

=

Thus

0 0

u

u

cos mg N

ma cos mg N W F N F

y y y , s y y

=

= = + = + + =

u cos mg W

F

N N

y

y , s

y

=

=

=

0

0 0

0 0

= + =

= = + = + + =

u u

u

sin mg cos mg

ma sin mg N W F N F

s

x s x x , s x x

429 0 2 23

or Thus

. . tan tan

cos mg

sin mg

sin mg cos mg

s

s

= = = =

=

u

u

u

u u

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 48

Conceptual Checkpoint:

A car drives with its tires rolling freely. Is the friction between the tires

and the road

a) Kinetic or b) static?

Reasoning and Discussion

A reasonable-sounding answer is that because the car is moving, the friction between its tires

and the road must be kinetic friction but this is not the case.

Actually, the friction is static because the bottom of the tire is in static contact with the road.

To understand this, watch your feet as you walk. Even though you are moving, each foot is in

static contact with the ground once you step down on it. Your foot doesnt move again until

you lift it up and move it forward for the next step. A tire can be thought of as a succession of

feet arranged in a circle, each of which is momentarily in static contact with the ground.

Answer:

(b) The friction between the tires and the road is static friction.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 49

A tire can be thought of as a succession of feet

arranged in a circle, each of which is momentarily in

static contact with the ground.

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 50

Exercise

A crate rests on the flatbed of a truck that is initially traveling at

15 m/s on a level road. The driver applies the brakes and the truck is brought to

a halt in a distance of 38 m. If the deceleration of the truck is constant, what is

the minimum coefficient of friction between the crate and the truck that is

required to keep the crate from sliding?

Direction of

motion of truck

mg

F

N

F

f

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 51

In moving a 35.0-kg desk from one side of a classroom to the other, a

professor finds that a horizontal force of 275 N is necessary to set the desk in

motion, and a force of 195 N is necessary to keep it in motion at a constant

speed. What are the coefficients of (a) static and (b) kinetic friction between the

desk and the floor?

(a) 0.81 (b) 0.57

mg

F

N

F

f

F

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 52

The coefficients of static and kinetic friction between a 50.0-kg box and a

horizontal surface are 0.500 and 0.400 respectively. (a) What is the

acceleration of the object if a 250-N horizontal force is applied to the box? (b)

What is the acceleration if the applied force is 235 N?

(a) (b) 0

2

1.1 m s

mg

F

N

F

F

f

Maximum static friction =

s

F

N

= 0.500 490.5 N = 245.25 N

EF

y

= F

N

mg = 0

F

N

= mg = 50.0 9.81 = 490.5 N

(a) If the applied force is 250 N, the box will be moving.

EF

x

= ma

250 N

k

F

N

= 250 N (0.400 490.5 N) = 53.8 N

a = 53.8 N / 50.0 kg = 1.1 m/s

2

(b) Applied force = 235 N < maximum static friction

y

x

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 53

A hockey player hits a puck with his stick, giving the puck an initial speed of 5 m/s.

If the puck slows uniformly and comes to rest in a distance of 20 m, what is the

coefficient of kinetic friction between the ice and the puck?

0.064

v

2

= v

0

2

+ 2as

v

2

- v

0

2

2s

= 0.63 m/s

2

EF

y

= F

N

mg = ma

y

= 0

F

N

= mg

EF

x

= F

f

= F

N

= ma

x

0 - 5

2

2(20)

a = =

mg

F

f

F

N

y

x

F

N

= ma

x

mg = ma

x

= ma

x

/ mg = a

x

/ g

= 0.63 / 9.81 = 0.064

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 54

One 5-kg bucket is hanging by a massless cord

from a 4-kg paint bucket, also hanging by a

massless cord, as shown in the figure.

(a) Determine the tension in each cord if the

buckets are at rest.

(b) If the two buckets are pulled upward with an

acceleration of 1.60 m/s

2

by the upper cord,

calculate the tension in each cord.

4 kg

5 kg

15/02/2014 17:58 55

Solution:

For the upper bucket:

4 kg

5 kg

F

T1

F

T2

F

T2

m

1

g

EF

y

= F

T1

F

T2

m

1

g = m

1

a (1)

m

2

g

For the lower bucket:

EF

y

= F

T2

m

2

g = m

2

a (2)

(a) If the buckets are at rest, then, a = 0

(b) If a =1.60 m/s

2

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 56

In the figure shown, m

1

= 2.0 kg and m

2

= 5.0 kg and the coefficient of kinetic

friction between m

1

and the inclined plane is 0.20. What is the acceleration of

the blocks and in which direction are they are moving?

T

F

N

m

1

g

m

2

g

T

F

f

EF

x

= T m

1

g sin u - F

f

= m

1

a

EF

y

= F

N

m

1

g cos u = 0

EF

y

= m

2

g - T = m

2

a

= T m

1

g sin 37 - F

N

= m

1

a

A 5-kg block is connected by means of a massless rope to a 2-kg block

through a frictionless pulley as shown in the figure. The 5-kg block is sliding

on the surface at constant velocity. Using free body diagrams, determine the

coefficient of kinetic friction between the 5-kg block and the surface.

15/02/2014 17:58 57 FAP0015 Chapter 4

15/02/2014 17:58 58

A child goes down a playground slide with an acceleration of 105 m/s

2

.

Find the coefficient of kinetic friction between the child and the slide if

the slide is inclined at an angle of 35.0 to the horizontal.

FAP0015 Chapter 4

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 59

30

Two forces F

1

and F

2

of equal magnitude are applied to a brick lying on the floor

as shown in the figure above. If the coefficient of static friction between the brick

and the floor is 0.4, what is the minimum value of F required to start the brick to

move?

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