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15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 1

Dynamics
1. Definition of Force and Mass
2. Newton 1st, 2nd & 3rd Laws of motion
4. Free body Diagrams
3. Types of Forces: Normal, Frictional,
Tension and Gravitation Forces. etc
3.
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Lesson Outcomes
At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
1. define force, mass and inertia.
2. state Newtons laws of motion.
3. explain everyday phenomena in terms of Newtons
laws of motion.
4. use free-body diagrams to solve problems involving
forces and accelerations.
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Dynamics
Displacement, velocity and acceleration are basic
kinematics quantities. However, when we begin to
think about why objects move, this is the science of
Dynamics.
The influence that changes the basic kinematics
quantities of a particle is called a force.
A force, simply put, is a push or a pull.
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Force
The concept of force gives us a quantitative description of the
interaction between two bodies or between a body and its
environment.
When a force involves direct contact between two bodies, we
call it a contact force. An example is frictional force.
There are also non-contact forces or action-at-a-distance
forces, including gravitational and electrical forces, which act
even when the bodies are separated by empty space.
The force of gravitational attraction that the earth exerts on a
body is called the weight of the body.
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The idea of a force is made explicit in
Newtons laws of motion.
Sir Isaac Newton
(British Physicist)
1642-1727
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Newtons 1
st
Law of Motion
(The Law of Inertia)
Inertia is the natural tendency of an object to remain at
rest or in motion at constant speed along a straight line.
Every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform
motion (constant velocity) in a straight line, unless a net
external force acts upon it.
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Newtons 2
nd
Law of Motion
The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the
net force acting on it in the same direction.

=

a m F
net
The proportionality constant is a quantity known as the mass of
the body denoted by m. Mass is a measure of an objects inertia.

net
F a

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Net force is the vector sum of all the forces
acting on it.
SI Unit of Force: kg.m/s
2
= newton (N)

=

a m F
net
For a given net force, the magnitude of
acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass.
m
a
1

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When EF
net
= 0,
If a = 0, then EF = 0
then a = 0
1st Law
(Newtons 1
st
Law is a special case of 2
nd
Law)

=

a m F
net
Newtons 2
nd
Law of Motion
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Newtons 3
rd
Law of Motion
To every action there is always an equal
and opposite reaction.
Action and reaction of forces are equal and opposite.
The two forces acts on different bodies,
so resultant force = 0.
BA AB
F F

=
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The astronaut pushes on the spacecraft
with a force +P and it pushes back on him
with a force P.
Example:
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Conceptual Question
Why do you forward when your car
suddenly comes to a halt? Why are you
pressed backward against the seat when
your car rapidly accelerates? In your
explanation, refer to the appropriate one of
Newtons three laws of motion.
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Reasoning and Solution
When the car comes to a sudden halt, the upper part of the body
continues forward (as predicted by Newton's first law) if the force
exerted by the lower back muscles is not great enough to give the
upper body the same deceleration as the car. The lower portion of
the body is held in place by the force of friction exerted by the car
seat and the floor.
When the car rapidly accelerates, the upper part of the body tries to
remain at a constant velocity (again as predicted by Newton's first
law). If the force provided by the lower back muscles is not great
enough to give the upper body the same acceleration as the car, the
upper body appears to be pressed backward against the st as the car
moves forward.
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Conceptual Question
The net external force acting on an object is
zero. Is it possible for the object to be traveling
with a velocity that is not zero? If your answer
is yes, state whether any conditions must be
placed on the magnitude and direction of the
velocity. If your answer is no, provide a reason
for your answer.
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Reasoning and Solution
If the net external force acting on an object is zero, it is
possible for the object to be traveling with a nonzero
velocity. According to Newtons second law, EF = ma,
if the net external force EF is zero, the acceleration a is
also zero. If the acceleration is zero, the velocity must be
constant, both in magnitude and in direction. Thus, an
object can move with a constant nonzero velocity when
the net external force is zero.
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When you are solving a dynamics problem, it is
very helpful to draw a free body diagram.
In such a diagram, a sketch of each object in the
problem is drawn, showing all the forces acting
on it.
Free body diagram
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The weight of an object is the force due to the attraction
between it and the Earth.
Some common forces
Weight
W = mg
W
The weight always acts downward, towards the center of
the earth.
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u
Normal Force
When an object is pressed against a surface, there is
a force in the direction of the normal to the surface.
W = mg
F
N
= mg
W = mg
F
N
= mg cos u
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When a rope is attached to an object and pulled taut, the
rope is under tension.
Tension
The direction of tension is always away from the object.
W = mg
W = mg
W = mg
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When an object slides over a surface there is a force
resisting the motion. The frictional force is parallel
to the surface and in the direction opposite to that of
the motion.
Friction
f
motion
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(a) Weight W and the normal reaction force F
N
on a stationary body.
(b) The resultant frictional force F
sF
due to the applied force F
T
but
with no resultant motion,
(c) the resultant frictional force F
kF
due to the applied force F
T
that
causes the body to move with velocity v.



w
F
N

w w
F
N
F
N

F
T
F
T

F
sF
F
kF

v
(a) (b) (c)
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Frictional Force
Normal force, F
N
is one of the force that a surface exerts on an
object with which it is in contact-namely the component that
perpendicular to the surface.
The component parallel to the surface is the frictional forces,
which are
static friction force, F
sF
when the body at rest (stationary).
kinetic friction, F
kF
when the body is moving
By definition F
N
and F
sF
or F
kF
are always perpendicular to each
other.
The direction of the friction force is always such as to oppose
relative motion of the two surfaces.
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Static Friction F
SF

Frictional forces can act even
when there is no relative motion
of the two surfaces in contact.
This is called static friction
force.
When the force F
T
is gradually
increased, the frictional force F
sF
also increases staying equal in
magnitude to F
T
as long as the
body remains at rest.
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Static Friction
For some given pair of surfaces the maximum value of F
sF

depends on the normal force F
N
and can have any value between
zero and a maximum value just before the body moves.
In such cases it is found that F
sF
is approximately proportional to
F
N
, i.e


N SF SF N SF
F F F F ~ Thus
where the proportionality constant
SF
is called the
coefficient of static friction.
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Kinetic Friction F
kF

At some point, F
T
becomes greater than the maximum
frictional force F
sF
that the surface can exert and the body
starts to slide along the surface with velocity v.
In many instances, the magnitude of the sliding friction F
kF
is
found to be approximately proportional to F
N
, that is



N kF kF N kF
F F F F = Thus
where the proportionality constant
kF
is called
the coefficient of kinetic friction.
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Typical Coefficients of Friction
Rubber on concrete(dry) 0.80 0.90
Steel on steel 0.57 0.74
Glass on glass 0.40 0.94
Wood on leather 0.40 0.50
Copper on steel 0.36 0.53
Rubber on concrete (wet) 0.25 0.30
Steel on ice 0.06 0.10
Waxed ski on snow 0.05 0.10
Teflon on Teflon 0.04 0.04
Materials Kinetic,
k
Static,
s
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Measurement of Friction
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Measurement of Friction
If u is small enough that the block does not slide, then we must
have



0
0
= =
= =

SF x
N y
F sin mg F
cos mg F F
u
u
c
N SF SF c N SF
F F F F
u
u
tan Thus
have We tan
sF
=
= =
u cos
N
F
mg =
u sin mg F
SF
=
u tan
N SF
F F =
By eliminating mg from (1) and (2) gives
Increase u until the block just begins to slide. At this critical
angle u
c

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In general, if an object is on the verge of slipping
when the surface on which it rests is tilted at an
angle u
c
, the coefficient of static friction between
the object and the surface is
sF
= tan u
c
.
.
c N sF c N SF
tan F tan F F u u = = =
sF
or
Its independent of the mass of the object.
F
sf
has a maximum value.
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Apparent Weight
Apparent weight is the force that the object exerts on
the scale with which it is in contact, in an
acceleration system.
For example, the sensation of feeling heavier or lighter
in an accelerating elevator.
The apparent weight of a passenger with a mass m
riding in an elevator with acceleration a
y
can be
understood better by looking at the free body diagram.
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The free-body diagram showing the forces acting on the person
riding in the elevator accelerating upwards at a
y
.

y N
ma W F F = =

(Apparent weight is equal to the


normal force acting on the body)
( )
y
y N
a g m
ma W F
+ =
+ =
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) a g ( m F
y N
+ =
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Weightlessness
When a
y
is positive, the elevator accelerated upward, and F
a
is
greater than the passengers weight, w=mg.
When the elevator is accelerated downward, a
y
is negative, and
F
a
is less than the weight, w=mg.
When the chain broken the elevator accelerated with a
y
= -g,
when its in free fall. In this case F
a
=0 and the passenger seems
to be weightless.
( ) 0 = = g g m F
a
Similarly, an astronaut orbiting the earth in a space capsule
experiences apparent weightlessness.
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Example
A 5.0 kg salmon is weighed by hanging it from a a fish scale attached to
the ceiling of an elevator. What is the apparent weight of the salmon,
W
a
, if the elevator (a) is at rest, (b) moves with an upward acceleration
2.5 m/s
2
, or (c) moves with a downward acceleration of 3.2 m/s
2
F
T

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Solution: The weight W = mg,
(a) F = F
T
W = ma
y
= 0, (a
y
=0)
So The apparent weight, W
a
=F
T
= mg = 5.0 kg (9.81m/s
2
) = 49N
(b) It moves up so F = W
a
W =ma
y
= ma where
a
y
= 2.5m/s
2.
Thus

W
a
= mg + ma = 49N + (5kg)(2.5m/s
2
) = 62 N
(c) It moves down, F = W
a
-W = ma
y
= -ma, where
a
y
= -3.2m/s
2
Thus

W
a
=

mg ma = 49N - (5kg)(3.2m/s
2
) = 33N
It is observed that when it moves (accelerating) up its apparent weight
is greater than the original weight and when it moves down is less.
F
T

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Example:
A block of mass m
1
slides on a frictionless tabletop. It is connected
to a string that passes over a pulley and suspends a mass m
2
. Find
the acceleration of the masses and the tension in the string.
F
N

F
N

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To solve:
There is no friction in the pulley and we consider the string is
massless.
The tension T is the same throughout and it applies a force of
magnitude T to each body.
The weights are m
1
g and m
2
g.
If the string does not stretch, the two masses must move equal
distances in equal time. Their speeds are equal at any instance.
When the speeds change, they changed with equal amounts and gives
equal acceleration at the same time.
Draw separate free body diagram for each body and apply
Newtons 2
nd
Law
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F
N

For m
2
:

E F
x
= 0
E F
y
= W
2
T
= m
2
g T = m
2
a (2)
Combine (1) and (2):
m
2
g m
1
a = m
2
a
For m
1
:

E F
y
= F
N
W
1
= 0
E F
x
= T = m
1
a (1)
( )
2 1
2
m m
g m
a
+
=
( )
2 1
2 1
1
m m
g m m
a m T
+
= =
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F
N

For m
2
:

E F
x
= 0
E F
y
= W
2
T
= m
2
g T = m
2
a (2)
Combine (1) and (2):
m
2
g m
1
a = m
2
a
For m
1
:

E F
y
= F
N
W
1
= 0
E F
x
= T = m
1
a (1)
( )
2 1
2
m m
g m
a
+
=
( )
2 1
2 1
1
m m
g m m
a m T
+
= =
( )( )
( )
m/s 27 3
2 4
81 9 2
.
.
=
+
=
= (4)(3.27) = 13.1 N
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Exercise
A 4-kg block is connected to a 2-kg block by
means of a massless rope through a frictionless
pulley as shown in the figure. If the coefficient of
static friction between the 4-kg block and the
surface is 0.3, what is the acceleration of the
blocks?
mg
F
N

F
f

T
mg
T
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mg
F
N

F
f

T
mg
T
y
x
For the 2-kg block

:

E F
x
= 0
E F
y
= W
2
T
= m
2
g T = m
2
a (2)
For the 4-kg block:

E F
y
= F
N
W
1
= 0
E F
x
= T F
f
= m
1
a
T m
1
g = m
1
a (1)
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Add (1) and (2):
m
2
g m
1
g = m
1
a + m
2
a
( )
2 1
1 2
m m
g m g m
a
+

=

g m a m T
1 1
+ =
( )( ) ( )( )( )
( )
2
m/s 3 1
2 4
81 9 4 3 0 81 9 2
.
. . .
=
+

=
( ) ( )( )( ) 81 9 4 3 0 3 1 4 . . . + =
T m
1
g = m
1
a (1) m
2
g T = m
2
a (2)
From (1):
= 17.0 N
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Example
A jet plane is flying with a constant speed along a straight line at an angle
of 30 above the horizontal. The plane has a weight,
W = 86500 N, an its engine provide a forward thrust, T = 103000 N. What
are the lift force, L, perpendicular to the wings and the air resistance force,
R, opposite the motion act on the plane?
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Solution
N
sin N sin W T R
R T sin W F
x
59800
30 86500 103000 30
0 30
=
= =
= + =

. N cos cos W L
, L cos W F
y
74900 30 86500 30
0 30
= = =
= + =

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Example
A flatbed truck slowly tilts its bed upward to dispose of
a 95.0-kg crate. For small angles of tilt the crate stays
put, but when the tilt angle exceeds 23.2 the crate
begins to slide. What is the coefficient of static friction
between the bed of the truck and the crate.
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Choose the positive x axis along the surface of the bed. They are
three forces acting on the crate, N
F
, W
g
and F
s.
.
When the crate begins to slide it is in its verge of slipping, The static
force F
s
=-
s
N.
We resolve the force vectors acting on the crate into x and y-
components.
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0
u

sin mg W
N F F
N
x
s max , s x , s
x
=
= =
=
Thus
0 0
u
u
cos mg N
ma cos mg N W F N F
y y y , s y y
=
= = + = + + =

Since the crate is at rest,


u cos mg W
F
N N
y
y , s
y
=
=
=
0
0 0
0 0
= + =
= = + = + + =

u u
u
sin mg cos mg
ma sin mg N W F N F
s
x s x x , s x x
429 0 2 23
or Thus
. . tan tan
cos mg
sin mg
sin mg cos mg
s
s
= = = =
=
u
u
u

u u
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Conceptual Checkpoint:
A car drives with its tires rolling freely. Is the friction between the tires
and the road
a) Kinetic or b) static?
Reasoning and Discussion
A reasonable-sounding answer is that because the car is moving, the friction between its tires
and the road must be kinetic friction but this is not the case.
Actually, the friction is static because the bottom of the tire is in static contact with the road.
To understand this, watch your feet as you walk. Even though you are moving, each foot is in
static contact with the ground once you step down on it. Your foot doesnt move again until
you lift it up and move it forward for the next step. A tire can be thought of as a succession of
feet arranged in a circle, each of which is momentarily in static contact with the ground.
Answer:
(b) The friction between the tires and the road is static friction.
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A tire can be thought of as a succession of feet
arranged in a circle, each of which is momentarily in
static contact with the ground.
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Exercise
A crate rests on the flatbed of a truck that is initially traveling at
15 m/s on a level road. The driver applies the brakes and the truck is brought to
a halt in a distance of 38 m. If the deceleration of the truck is constant, what is
the minimum coefficient of friction between the crate and the truck that is
required to keep the crate from sliding?
Direction of
motion of truck
mg
F
N

F
f

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In moving a 35.0-kg desk from one side of a classroom to the other, a
professor finds that a horizontal force of 275 N is necessary to set the desk in
motion, and a force of 195 N is necessary to keep it in motion at a constant
speed. What are the coefficients of (a) static and (b) kinetic friction between the
desk and the floor?
(a) 0.81 (b) 0.57
mg
F
N

F
f

F
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The coefficients of static and kinetic friction between a 50.0-kg box and a
horizontal surface are 0.500 and 0.400 respectively. (a) What is the
acceleration of the object if a 250-N horizontal force is applied to the box? (b)
What is the acceleration if the applied force is 235 N?
(a) (b) 0
2
1.1 m s
mg
F
N

F
F
f

Maximum static friction =
s
F
N
= 0.500 490.5 N = 245.25 N
EF
y
= F
N
mg = 0
F
N
= mg = 50.0 9.81 = 490.5 N
(a) If the applied force is 250 N, the box will be moving.
EF
x
= ma
250 N
k
F
N
= 250 N (0.400 490.5 N) = 53.8 N
a = 53.8 N / 50.0 kg = 1.1 m/s
2

(b) Applied force = 235 N < maximum static friction
y
x
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A hockey player hits a puck with his stick, giving the puck an initial speed of 5 m/s.
If the puck slows uniformly and comes to rest in a distance of 20 m, what is the
coefficient of kinetic friction between the ice and the puck?
0.064
v
2
= v
0
2
+ 2as
v
2
- v
0
2

2s
= 0.63 m/s
2

EF
y
= F
N
mg = ma
y
= 0
F
N
= mg
EF
x
= F
f
= F
N
= ma
x

0 - 5
2

2(20)
a = =
mg
F
f

F
N

y
x
F
N
= ma
x

mg = ma
x

= ma
x
/ mg = a
x
/ g
= 0.63 / 9.81 = 0.064
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One 5-kg bucket is hanging by a massless cord
from a 4-kg paint bucket, also hanging by a
massless cord, as shown in the figure.
(a) Determine the tension in each cord if the
buckets are at rest.
(b) If the two buckets are pulled upward with an
acceleration of 1.60 m/s
2
by the upper cord,
calculate the tension in each cord.
4 kg
5 kg
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Solution:
For the upper bucket:
4 kg
5 kg
F
T1

F
T2

F
T2

m
1
g
EF
y
= F
T1
F
T2
m
1
g = m
1
a (1)
m
2
g
For the lower bucket:
EF
y
= F
T2
m
2
g = m
2
a (2)
(a) If the buckets are at rest, then, a = 0
(b) If a =1.60 m/s
2

15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 56
In the figure shown, m
1
= 2.0 kg and m
2
= 5.0 kg and the coefficient of kinetic
friction between m
1
and the inclined plane is 0.20. What is the acceleration of
the blocks and in which direction are they are moving?
T
F
N

m
1
g
m
2
g
T
F
f

EF
x
= T m
1
g sin u - F
f
= m
1
a
EF
y
= F
N
m
1
g cos u = 0
EF
y
= m
2
g - T = m
2
a
= T m
1
g sin 37 - F
N
= m
1
a

A 5-kg block is connected by means of a massless rope to a 2-kg block
through a frictionless pulley as shown in the figure. The 5-kg block is sliding
on the surface at constant velocity. Using free body diagrams, determine the
coefficient of kinetic friction between the 5-kg block and the surface.
15/02/2014 17:58 57 FAP0015 Chapter 4
15/02/2014 17:58 58
A child goes down a playground slide with an acceleration of 105 m/s
2
.
Find the coefficient of kinetic friction between the child and the slide if
the slide is inclined at an angle of 35.0 to the horizontal.

FAP0015 Chapter 4
15/02/2014 17:58 FAP0015 Chapter 4 59
30
Two forces F
1
and F
2
of equal magnitude are applied to a brick lying on the floor
as shown in the figure above. If the coefficient of static friction between the brick
and the floor is 0.4, what is the minimum value of F required to start the brick to
move?