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STREET LIGHTS THAT GLOW FOR 1/2KM ONLY
ON DETECTING VEHICLE MOVEMENT

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ABSTRACT
IR Sensors used on either sides of the road send logic commands for the LEDs at the output to get glowing for a patch ahead.  Intensity control is also possible by pulse width modulation based on sensing the movement and density of vehicles.  Thus this way of dynamically changing intensity or off to on helps in saving a lot of energy.  A programmable microcontroller is engaged to provide different duty cycle for different intensities at different density conditions.

.PREVIOUS TECHNOLOGY  High intensity discharge lamp (HID) presently used for urban street light are based on principle of gas discharge. thus the intensity is not controllable by any voltage reduction method as the discharge path is broken.

 Life time of LEDs is also more.PRESENT  DAY TECHNOLOGY White Light Emitting Diode (LED) based lamps are soon replacing the HID lamps in street light.  LEDs consume less power compared to HID lamps. .  As these LEDs can switch faster than HID lamps we can apply PWM concept to these LEDs.

BLOCK DIAGRAM .

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS       TRANSFORMER (230 – 12 V AC) VOLTAGE REGULATOR (LM 7805) RECTIFIER FILTER MICROCONTROLLER (AT89S52/AT89C51) LEDS       PHOTODIODES POTENTIAL DIVIDER BC547 1N4007 RESISTORS CAPACITORS .

POWER SUPPLY 230 V AC 50 Hz 12V step down transformer Bridge rectifier Filter(470µf) 5v Regulator 5V DC .

DESCRIPTION OF POWER SUPPLY     The circuit uses standard power supply comprising of a step-down transformer from 230v to 12v and 4 diodes forming a Bridge Rectifier that delivers pulsating dc which is then filtered by an electrolytic capacitor of about 470microf to 100microF. . negative voltage to indicate 5v power supply availability. The filtered dc being un regulated IC LM7805 is used to get 5v constant at its pin no 3 irrespective of input dc varying from 9v to 14v. The regulated 5volts dc is further filtered by a small electrolytic capacitor of 10 micro f for any noise so generated by the circuit.e. One LED is connected of this 5v point in series with a resistor of 330ohms to the ground i.

000 Write/Erase Cycles • 4.5V Operating Range • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz • Three-level Program Memory Lock • 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Three 16-bit Timer/Counters • Eight Interrupt Sources • Full Duplex UART Serial Channel • Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode • Watchdog Timer • Dual Data Pointer • Fast Programming Time .false MICROCONTROLLER(AT89S52)               o • Compatible with MCS®-51 Products • 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory – Endurance: 10.0V to 5.

PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89S52 .

Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fibre connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device.PHOTO DIODE A photodiode is a type of photo detector capable of converting light into either current or voltage. depending upon the mode of operation. .

They. The appearance is same as a common LED. along with IR receivers. unlike a common LED. is a special purpose LED that transmits infrared rays in the range of 760 nm wavelength.IR LED     An IR LED. it is not possible for a person to identify whether the IR LED is working or not. The camera can show us the IR rays being emanated from the IR LED in a circuit. . Since the human eye cannot see the infrared radiations. also known as IR transmitter. the camera on a cell phone can be used. Such LEDs are usually made of gallium arsenide or aluminum gallium arsenide. To overcome this problem. are commonly used as sensors.

The main advantage of PWM is that power loss in the switching devices is very low. there is almost no voltage drop across the switch. When a switch is off there is practically no current. because the power is off for most of the time. which. because of their on/off nature. the higher the power supplied to the load is.   Duty cycle is expressed in percent.  PWM works also well with digital controls. .PWM(PULSE WIDTH MODULATION)  The term duty cycle describes the proportion of on time to the regular interval or period of time.  The longer the switch is on compared to the off periods. can easily set the needed duty cycle. 100% being fully on. and when it is on. a low duty cycle corresponds to low power.

PWM(PULSE WIDTH MODULATION) .

OPERATION OF PROJECT  There are two basic modes of operation. all the streetlights will be in dark state. When a vehicle is sensed then the window of streetlights is illuminated in front of the vehicle. Transition of streetlights from dark to bright state. Transition of streetlights from dim to bright state. 1. when the vehicle is not present.  In the first mode of operation. 2. .

all the streetlights are illuminated for 1ms and the window of streetlights are illuminated for 100ms. .SECOND MODE OF OPERATION  In the second mode of operation. all the streetlights will be in dim state.  When a vehicle is not present on the highway. Thus. then the streetlights are made to glow for about 1ms and then for 100ms they are switched off. we get streetlights with less brightness. This is achieved by use of pulse width modulation technique through the program stored in the microcontroller. Thus we have a PWM wave of 99% duty cycle. initially when the vehicle is not sensed.  When a vehicle is sensed.

Desktop compilers produce an output object code for the underlying microprocessor. XC16x/C16x/ST10. . simulators. and 8051 MCU families. and emulators for ARM7/ARM9/Cortex-M3. integrated environments. realtime kernels. macro assemblers.  Compilers are programs used to convert a High Level Language to object code. but not for other microprocessors. 251.SOFT WARE REQUIREMENTS  Keil an ARM Company makes C compilers. debuggers. evaluation boards.

 i.e the programs written in one of the HLL like ‘C’ will compile the code to run on the system for a particular processor like x86 (underlying microprocessor in the computer).  For example compilers for Dos platform is different from the Compilers for Unix platform code into object code. So if one wants to define a compiler then compiler is a program that translates source .

APPLICATIONS Highways  Industries  Museums  .

ADVANTAGES Power saving  LEDs consume less power  Easily implementable  Low cost  .

wikipedia.com  .org  www.BIBILOGRAPHY The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems” by Muhammad Ali Mazidi and Janice Gillispie Mazidi .alldatasheets.com  www.atmel.beyondlogic.  ATMEL 89S52 Data Sheets.org  www. Pearson Education.com  www.howstuffworks.  www.