You are on page 1of 127

Water Resources of the world

Water Resources of the world

Over the last century


Human population has increased 3x Global water withdrawal has increased 7x Per capita water withdrawal has increased 4x

About one-sixth of the worlds people don't have easy access to safe water

Most water resources are owned by Government and are managed as publicly owned resources

Use of Water Resources in Pakistan


PAKISTAN

Agriculture

5% 2%

Industry
Domestic

Industry

Public
1 2 3

Agriculture

93%

Principal source of drinking water

GROUND WATER
Most of the rural areas and many major cities rely on it, although some cities such as Islamabad, Karachi, Hyderabad etc, get water from a number of other sources

About 80% of Punjab has fresh Groundwater

In Sindh, less than 30% of groundwater is fresh

In Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, increasing abstraction has resulted in wells now reaching into saline layers

Balochistan also has saline groundwater

Ground Water cycle


Flowing artesian well Precipitation Well requiring a pump Confined Recharge Area Evaporation and transpiration Evaporation

Runoff

Aquifer

Stream Lake Infiltration Unconfined aquifer

Infiltration

Water table

Less permeable material such as clay

Confined aquifer Confirming permeable rock layer

Problems Using Groundwater

Water Table Lowering

Depletion

SALTWATER INTRUSION is the movement of saline


water into fresh water aquifers

Reduced Stream Flow

The drying up of wells

Groundwater in the sub basin of Quetta would be exhausted by 2016

In Islamabad, the drop has been 50 feet between 1986 and 2001

In Lahore, the drop has been about 20 feet between 1993 and 2001.

Punjab has the best rural water supply The vast majority of the rural population has either piped water or water from a hand pump or motor pump.

Rural Water Supply in Pakistan

Only 7 % of the rural population depends

on a dug well or a river, canal or stream.

Sindh is considerably worse: some 24% of the rural population depend on these sources

Situation in Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa is worse still 46%

In Balochistan, 72% of the rural population depend on dug well or from a river/canal/stream

Human Water Needs

A person needs about 1 gallon water/day for hydration

In the Pakistan each person uses about 188 gallons/day

An additional 657 gallons/person/day are used for irrigation, industrial use

If worlds water supply were 100 liters, the usable supply would be about 0.5 tsp

US has highest per capita water withdrawal, followed by Canada, Australia, Russia, Japan

Water Condition in Pakistan

Pakistan has decreased from 5,000 in 1951 to 1000 cubic meter per Annum in 2010

2010 and 2025 have reached 173 million and 267 million respectively

The situation could get worse in areas where it is already below 1000m3 per head

WATER AVAILABILITY

Per Capita Water Availability


Years 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 2013 2025 Population (million) 34 46 65 84 115 148 207 267 Per Capita Availability (m3) 5000 3950 2700 2100 1600 1200 850 659

WATER AVAILABILITY IN PAKISTAN

The water Shortage


The water shortage in the agriculture sector is another serious issue. 29% for the year 2010 and 33% for 2025.

Today groundwater contributes a merely 48% of the water available

The hike in the cost of electricity in 1990s and the development of new technologies have led to a considerable increase of diesel pumps whose numbers have grown 6 times over the last 30 years. (SOE 2005)

WATER QUALITY IN PAKISTAN

WATER QUALITY IN PAKISTAN


Domestic and Industrial waste are discharged directly or indirectly in fresh water Only 3 waste treatment plants are present in Pakistan Only some 8% of urban wastewater is treated in municipal treatment plants. In Sindh 95% of shallow groundwater supplies are bacteriologically contaminated In Punjab, approximately 36% of the population is exposed Arsenic (10ppb)

Pakistan

Pakistan
Rapid increase in Population Urbanization Industrial Development

Non development of Water resources

Extended Drought

Sources of water pollution


Sources of water pollution

Municipal Sewage Industrial Water Pollution Agriculture Water Pollution

Municipal Sewage
It has been estimated that around 2,000 million gallons of sewage is being discharged to surface water bodies every day in Pakistan (Pak-SCEA 2006)

NCS states that 40% of death are related to water born diseases

Drinking Water Supply Lines Conditions in Pakistan

Water is contaminated with Lead PCBs Cyanides Mercury Hospital Waste Pharma Waste

It is estimated that 50% Nationally (less than 20% in many rural areas), with only about 10% of collected sewage is effectively treated

Industrial Water Pollution

Most industries in the country are located in or around major cities and are recognized as key sources of increasing pollution in natural streams, rivers, as well as the Arabian Sea to which the toxic effluents are discharged

Major Industrial Contributors to Water Pollution in Pakistan

Petrochemicals, Paper and pulp, Food processing, Sugar, Textile, Cement and fertilizer produce more than 80% of the total industrial effluents

Sugarcane Based Industry


A major cause of industrial water pollution due to discharge of wastewater containing high pollutant concentrations

Several hundred thousand tons of wastewater is generated per day

In Pakistan, only 1% of wastewater is treated by industries before being discharged directly into rivers and drains

Tanneries
It may take hundreds or even thousands of years for pollutants such as toxic metals from the tanneries to be flushed out of a contaminated aquifer

In K.P, 80,000 m3 of industrial effluents containing a very high level of pollutants are discharged every day into the river Kabul

In Karachi, Sindh Industrial Trading Estate (SITE) and Korangi Industrial and Trading Estate (KITE), two of the biggest industrial estates in Pakistan, there is no effluent treatment plant and the waste containing hazardous materials, heavy metals, oil etc. is discharged into rivers.

In Multan, a fertilizer factory discharges its waste untreated to cultivated land causing death of livestock and increasing health risk to humans. (WB-CWRAS Paper 8, 2005)

In Lahore, only 3 out of some 100 industries using hazardous chemicals treat their wastewater. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) levels in water courses receiving these wastes are as high as 800mg/l and Mercury levels over 5 mg/l

In Faisalabad, one of the biggest industrial cities, there is little segregation of domestic and industrial wastes

Agriculture Water Pollution

According NWP, the irrigation network of Pakistan is the largest infrastructural approximately $ 300 billion of investment, 25% to the country's GDP. provides 90 % of food and fiber The remaining 10 % arid.

This includes runoff and leaching Fertilizers xcv pesticide drift and volatilization erosion and dust from cultivation, animal manure

The study revealed that in Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan and all drains were carrying saline and sodic waters due to high values of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and all of them also had very high values for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD).

The contribution of agricultural drainage to the overall contamination of the water resources exists but is marginal compared to the industrial and domestic pollution. For example, in Sindh, the pollution of water due to irrigation is only 3.21% of the total Pollution (SOE 2005)

Source of contamination of Water Pollution


Point sources Nonpoint sources

Point and Non point


NONPOINT SOURCES

Rural homes

Urban streets

Cropland

Animal feedlot
Suburban development POINT SOURCES

Factory

Wastewater treatment plant

Classification of the Cause of Water Pollution

Inorganic Water Pollution Organic Water Pollution

Inorganic Pollutants
Pre-production industrial raw material

Heavy metals including acid mine drainage

Inorganic Pollutants
Chemical waste as industrial by-products

Acidity due to industrial discharges like sulphur dioxide

Fertilizers in runoff from agriculture including nitrates and phosphates

Phosphates and Nitrates


Phosphatesmostly a result of sewage outflow and from Fertilizer, phosphate detergents

Nitratessewage and fertilizers

The combustion of coal leads to the release of mercury in the atmosphere. This enters the rivers, lakes and groundwater. This is very hazardous for pregnant women and infants

gdg

Arsenic Toxicity
Arsenic contamination is also becoming a serious problem. In Sindh and the Punjab, approximately 36% of the population is exposed to a level of contamination higher than 10ppb 16% is exposed to contamination of 50ppb. (SOE 2005)
Investigations revealed the presence of

excessive arsenic in many cities of Punjab (Multan, Sheikhupura, Lahore, Kasur, Gujranwala & Bahawalpur) Sindh (Dadu & Khairpur) provinces. The concentration of arsenic was found to be 50ppb five times higher that the prescribed limit of 10 ppb by WHO.

(PCRWR)

Organic water pollution

Bacteria from sewage or livestock operation

Food processing waste,which can include oxygen demand substance like fat

Petroleum hydrocarbons like Diesel, Gasoline, Jet fuel, Motor oil, Detergents

Disinfection by products found in chemically Disinfected drinking water, such as chloroform

Pesticides

some commonly used pesticides Chlorinated hydrocarbons DDT,2-15 years Organophosphates 1-2weeks Carbamates ---days to weeks

Scale of Pesticide Use in Pakistan


Since 1950 to 1990: 50-fold increase in pesticide use Most present pesticides are 10-100 x more toxic than those used in 1950s As there has been a fourfold increase in the use of Pesticide per year from 1990 to 2000

Each Year in the Pakistan

About 45 thousands tones of pesticides are used About 2500 commercial pesticide products Use of pesticides is increasing at the rate of 25% per year

Case Study
In 107 samples of groundwater collected from across the country between 1988 and 2000 31 samples were found to have contamination of pesticides beyond FAO/WHO safety limits. A pilot project was undertaken in 1990-91 in Samundari, Faisalabad In an analysis of 10 groundwater samples drawn from a depth of 1015 m Seven were contaminated with one or more pesticides (PCRWR, 1991)

Herbicides
Some Common Pesticides and Their Effects

Triazines,

(interfere with photosynthesis) Phenoxy compounds, N compounds (create excess growth hormones) Dalapon (kill soil microorganisms)

Pollution of Lakes

Eutrophication Results

Ocean Pollution

Oil Spills Pollution


Sources of pollution: offshore wells, tankers, pipelines and storage tanks

Effects
Loss of animal buoyancy

Loss of animal insulation

Death of organisms

HEALTH ISSUES RELATED TO WATER POLLUTION

As per USAID report, an estimated 250,000 child deaths occur each year in Pakistan due to water-borne disease. The WHO reports that 25-30% of all hospital admissions are connected to water borne bacterial and parasitic conditions, with 60% of infant deaths caused by water infections. Small rural areas in Sindh do not receive adequately-treated water Of course, major cities, like Karachi, get contaminated water.

Pollutant

Source/Cause

Effect Oxygen depletion Spread of diseases/ epidemics

Sewage that includes domestic Sewerage of rural and urban wastes, hospital wastes, areas. excreta, etc.

Metals-Mercury

Industrial wastes

Minamata disease - causes numbness of limbs, lips and tongue, blurred vision, deafness and mental derangement.

Lead

Industrial wastes

Absorbed into blood and affects PBCs, liver, kidney, bone, brain and the peripheral nervous system. Lead poisoning can even lead to coma.
Deposited in organs like the kidney, pancreas, liver, intestinal mucosa, etc. Cadmium poisoning causes headache, vomiting, bronchial pneumonia, kidney necrosis, etc.

Cadmium

Cadmium industries, Fertilizers

Arsenic

Fertilizers

Arsenic poisoning causes renal failure and death, It can cause nerve disorder, kidney and liver disorders, muscular atrophy, etc.

Agrochemicals like DDT

Pesticides

Accumulates in the bodies of fishes, birds, mammals including man. Adversely affects the nervous system, fertility. Causes thinning of egg shells in birds.
Damage Kidney

Wastes

Mining and Smelting Industries

Nitrates/Nitrogen Trihalomethane(Trihalomethan es are a group of organic chemicals formed in water when chlorine reacts with natural organic matter (such as humic acids from decaying vegetation). Humic acids are present in all natural water used as sources of drinking water)

Pesticides

Blue Baby Syndrome

Decaying Plant Material

cause cancers of colon, rectum and bladder

PREVENTING AND REDUCING SURFACE WATER POLLUTION

Solutions:
Nonpoint Sources
Reduce runoff Buffer zone vegetation Reduce soil erosion

Point Sources
Pakistans Environmental Protection Act National Drinking Water Policy

REDUCING NONPOINT SOURCE OF WATER POLLUTION

As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries ways natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, ground water etc

Infiltration trenches, which are rock-filled trenches in which stormwater is stored in the voids of the stones, and then slowly filters back into groundwater; Downspout diversion programs (i.e., allowing domestic gutters to discharge to lawns or other unpaved areas instead of being connected to the sewers Permeable or porous pavements for roads and parking lots Swales (i.e., grass depressions that catch runoff from impermeable surfaces and slowly filter it back into groundwater) Wide filter or buffer strips of natural vegetation: grass or woodland, usually located between paved areas and the watercourse to slow flows and remove pollutants Infiltration basins that hold surface water, allowing it to infiltrate the soil gradually; and retention ponds or permanently wet ponds that retain surface runoff

The Buffer Zone is that strip of vegetation located between developed land and a lake, stream Function as filters by reducing nitrogen from agricultural runoff by 68% Function to filter approx 8085% phosphate Function to enhance infilteration of surface runoff

Increased level of nitrogen and phosphorus, along with higher sediment loads, are the leading contributors to reduce water quality Soil Erosion can be controlled by using management practices like Conservation tillage, residue management, grassed waterways, terraces, conservation buffers, crop rotation and contour farming

REDUCTING POINT SOURCE WATER POLLUTION

Pakistan Enviornmental Protection Act (PEPA) describes the functions of Enviornmental Protection Agency (EPA) PEPA advises EPA to establish standards for discharge and emission of ambient water, coordinate enviornmental policies and programmes, nationally and internationally, designate laboratories for conducting tests and analysis for monitoring, measurement, examination, investigation, research, inspection and audits to prevent and control pollution

It provides a framework for addressing the key issues and challenges facing Pakistan in the provision of safe drinking water to the people Its targets include
To provide safe drinking water to 93% of the population in 2015 To provide at least one hand pump for every 250 persons To establish water treatment plants in all urban areas by the year 2015 To ensure water quality standards

WATER TREATMENT

Physical and biological treatment


Fig. 22-16 p. 511

Uses physical and chemical processes


Removes nitrate and phosphate

Expensive
Not widely used

Measure Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) Chemical Analysis Indicator Species

Dissolved Oxygen exist in very low concentrations


If dissolved oxygen concentrations drop below 5ppm, fish will be unable to live for very long

All clean water species such as trout or salmon will die well above this level and even low oxygen fish such as catfish and carp will be at risk below 5ppm

Conductivity
Dissolved Oxygen Nitrate Phosphate Pesticides

Conductivity is linked directly to the total dissolved solids (T.D.S) High quality deionized water has a conductivity of about 5.5 S/m Typical drinking water in the range of 5-50mS/m Seawater has conductivity about 5S/m

It is the relative measure of the amount of oxygen dissolved in water In freshwater, under atmospheric pressure at 20C, O2 saturation is 9.1mg/L

In freshwater close to land, nitrate can reach high levels that can cause death of fish Levels over 30ppm of nitrate can inhibit growth, impair the immune system in aquatic species

Phosphate availability may govern the rate of growth of organisms Which result in Eutrophication and the collapse of populations of some organisms at the expense of others

Pesticides surface runoff into rivers and streams can be highly lethal to aquatic life Pesticides kill zooplankton, the main source of food for young fish Herbicides kill off plants on which fish depend for their habitat

Water pollution can be measured without using expensive equipment by simply counting the number of animals living in a stream If, all of a sudden, all the fish leave a stream then it might be a sign that there is some pollution in water Mayfly are a very good indicator of water quality. They can only survive in the cleanest conditions If a site has population of sewage worms or tubificids, this suggests that water quality has been degraded by input of sewage

SOLUTION OF WATER POLLUTION

Solutions Water Pollution

Prevent groundwater contamination Greatly reduce nonpoint runoff Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation Find substitutes for toxic pollutants Work with nature to treat sewage Practice four R's of resource use (refuse, reduce, recycle, reuse) Reduce resource waste Reduce Soil Erosion

Questions

We thanks to all those teachers who encourage us but Our sincere thanks to: Mam RAZIA for there guidance, Mam SAIMA GUL, who gave a lot of time for correction without them this was difficult task for us