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L -35 : Multiphase Reactors: Design

Approach
Prof. K.K.Pant
Department of Chemical Engineering
IIT Delhi.
kkpant@chemical.iitd.ac.in
Three -phase Reactors- Advantages and
Disadvantages
Advantages Disadvantages
Bubble
Fixed- Bed
Reactor
+
High liquid holdup,
therefore, catalyst are
completely wetted, better
temperature control, and no
channeling problems.
+
Gas-liquid mass transfer is
higher than in Trickle bed
due to higher gas-liquid
interaction.
+
Axial back mixing is
higher than trickle-
beds, conversion is
lower.
+
Feasibility of liquid side
homogeneous
reactions
+
Pressure drop is high
+
Flooding problems may
occur.
3
4
Steps in Slurry Reactors
Catalytic Fixed-Bed Reactor - Design Model
Mass Balance around the catalyst


Gas-Phase component mass balance (Plug Flow model)


Gas-Phase component mass balance (Dispersion model)


Energy Model

i net S G i c c R i C C a k ) ( ) ( ) ( = q
0 . 0 ) ( ) ( = i S G i c c
Gi
G C C a k
dz
dC
U
0 . 0 ) ( ) (
2
2
= i S G i c c
Gi
G
Gi
G C C a k
dz
dC
U
z d
C d
i D
) ( ) ( Ta T UA j H Rj
dz
dT
Cp U R G G G + A =

6
Reactions Steps in slurry reactors
7
Rate of gas absorptions
Transport to the Catalyst Pellet
8
Diffusion and Reaction in the Catalyst Pellet
m = mass of cata/vol of solution
Determination of RDS
9
10
Comparison of Three Phase
Trickle- Bed and Bubble Fixed Bed
Reactors
Comparison of Three Phase
Suspended Bed Reactors
Approximate dimensions of commercial trickle-bed
reactors are a height of 10 m and a diameter of 2 m.
Theory of Catalytic Gas- Liquid
Reactions
A
(G)
+ B
(L)
C
Gaseous reactant A reacts with non-volatile
liquid reactant B on solid catalyst sites.
Mechanism Of Three- Phase Reactions:-
Mass Transfer of component A from bulk
gas to gas-liquid interface
Mass transfer of component A from gas-
liquid interface to bulk liquid
Mass transfer of A& B from bulk liquid to
catalyst surface


Intraparticle diffusion of species A&
B through the catalyst pores to active
sites.



Adsorption of both or one of the
reactant species on catalyst active
sites.

Surface reaction involving at least
one or both of the adsorbed species.

Desorption of products, reverse of
forward steps .
| |
|
\ .
1
m
-r =
A H H H
1
A A A
+ + +
k a k a k a m
k C Af
c
Ag i Al i Ac
s
A B
First order rate constant for A
( )
'
-r =k C g
vg
A A
Mole balance for A
Mole balance for B
( )
dF
'
A
=r =-k C g
vg
A A
dW
1 mol
'
-r = C
B B 1 1 gcat.s
+
k a nKC
c p
AS
-r =k C
B vl B
dF dC
'
B B
=v =-r =k C
vg
1 B B
dW dW
REACTOR MODEL
In kinetic models for trickle beds, the
reaction is often assumed to be first order
to both reactants
For the ideal case of plug flow and
completely wetted catalyst, the conversion
for a first-order reaction is given by:






Conversion may be given as a function of
the liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), and
the apparent rate constant, kapp, includes
the effect of partial wetting as well as the
effect of internal concentration gradients.
where
Calculation of Catalytic
Effectiveness Factor
Catalytic Effectiveness Factor:


where
|- Thiele Modulus
1
st
order reaction rate:

Spherical Pellet
Cylindrical Pellet
Slab Pellet



1 1
= (Coth3- )
3
R
= kSap/De
3
R
= kSap/De
2
=L kSap/De
Applications
Trickle-bed reactors are employed in
petroleum, petrochemical and chemical
industries, in waste water treatment and
biochemical and electrochemical
processing.
For Example:
Residuum and vacuum residuum
desulfurization
Catalytic dewaxing of lubestock cuts
Hydrogenation of methyl styrene to
cumene
Oxidation of glucose
Biochemical reactions and fermentations