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# Course Review

Review Questions
A hypothesis is: a) A widely understood fact of nature b) An explanation of some observed phenomenon that is supported by large amounts of convincing evidence c) An educated guess

Review Questions:
1) What is a hypothesis? 2) What is statistics? 3) What is a population? A census? A sample?

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Descriptive statistics
The mean is 9.18 The standard deviation is 1.54 Sample It is bimodal Modes: 10.4 and 12.0 It is positively skewed

Inferential statistics

## Sample Population Measurement

Probability
Inference

Review Questions:
4) Describe 3 different types of sampling. 5) Which type of sampling is best? 6) Why?

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Review Questions
A group of UH researchers randomly selected five elementary schools in HISD and measured the BMI of every student and educator in those schools. This is an example of a: a) Census b) Convenience sample c) Cluster sample d) Systematic sample

Review Questions:
7) Name 3 measures of central tendency. 8) Name 3 measures of variability. 9) What is a frequency distribution? How is it usually illustrated?

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## Short-term Memory Workshop

At the start of class
60 60 50 50

## At the end of class

Frequency

30

Frequency

40

40

30

20

20

10

10

Example
Which of the following statements is true of data with a nominal level of measurement?
A. You can calculate a mean B. You cannot generate a frequency distribution C. Paired with another variable, you can use it to calculate a linear correlation coefficient D. You can calculate a mode

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Review Questions:
10) What is an observational study? 11) What is an experimental study? 12) What is an independent variable? A dependent variable? 13) What is a longitudinal study?

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Example:
Researchers randomly assigned 90 rats to three experimental groups:
A) Fed a low-calorie diet B) Fed a normal diet C) Fed a high-calorie diet

The rats are fed and exercised for 30 days, then weighed. What is the independent variable? What is the dependent variable?
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Review Questions:
14) What is a correlation? 15) What is represented by the linear correlation coefficient, r? 16) Explain what each of these mean:
a) r = -0.93 b) r = 0 c) r = 0.56 d) r = 1.00

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The DATA
140 120

r = 0.530

## Grip strength (lbs)

100 80 60 40 20 0 14.0

18.0

22.0

26.0

## Hand span (cm)

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Review Questions
The scatter plot on the previous slide showed: a) A strong correlation b) A weak positive correlation c) A weak negative correlation d) A perfect correlation e) No correlation

Review Questions:
18) What is reliability? 19) Define 3 kinds of reliability. 20) What is validity? 21) Define 3 kinds of validity.

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Review Questions
The Physical Fitness Test recognizes students for their level of physical fitness in 5 events: curl-ups, shuttle run, endurance run, push-ups, and V-sit. Is a child who scores well in one event likely to score well in the other four events? This is a question of: a) Test-retest Reliability b) Internal consistency reliability c) Content validity d) Criterion validity e) Construct validity

Match-up
One version of the MCAT is much harder than the others Test-retest reliability Interrater reliability Parallel forms reliability The number of calories determined by a 24-hour food recall depends on who does the interview Every time I do a 1.5-Mile run test, my performance varies a lot.

Review Questions:
22) What is a null hypothesis? 23) What is a research hypothesis? 24) Which hypothesis do we always assume to be true at the beginning of a study? 25) WHY?

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Review Questions
Which of the following is an acceptable research hypothesis? a) H0: p = 0.20 b) H0: 1 > 2 c) H0: 1 = 2 d) H1: r = 0 e) H1: x1 x2

Review Questions:
26) What is a one-sided hypothesis test? A two-sided test? 27) What is a test statistic? 28) What is a critical value? 29) How is critical value determined? 30) What is level of significance?

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Review Questions
In a left-tailed test, the test statistic must be greater than the critical value in order to reject the null hypothesis. a) TRUE b) FALSE

Review Questions
If the p-value is greater than the level of significance, we fail to reject the null hypothesis. a) TRUE b) FALSE

Review Questions:
31) What is a Type I Error? 32) What is a Type II Error? 33) What is a p-value?

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Review Questions
The probability of making a Type II error when the null hypothesis is false is: a) b) c) d) e) The test statistic The p-value Level of significance, Always greater than the probability of making a Type I error.

Review Questions:
34) What is a one sample z-test? 35) What information do you need about the population before you can perform a one sample z-test? 36) How do you determine critical values of z?

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Review
Study design One sample ztest Independent tTest Dependent t-Test Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Correlation Hypotheses H1: x H0: x H1: x1 x2 H0: 1 2 H1: x1 x2 H0: 1 2 H1: at least one group H0: 1 2 k H1: r 0 H0: 0
mean is different

Test statistic

When to use Determine if one group of data is from a given population Two groups of data Two groups of data (paired) More than two groups of data Paired data for n subjects

Z
t t F r

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Review Questions:
37) What is a t-Test? 38) Describe the t-distribution. 39) What is the difference between a t-Test for independent samples and a t-Test for dependent samples? 40) What are degrees of freedom?

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Validation study

Research Question
Is Reaction Time a valid tool for assessing malnutrition, cognitive function and quality of life?
Addenbrooke cognitive examination (ACE) Simple reaction time Complex (choice) reaction time Quality of Life (SF-36)
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Research Hypotheses
H1: xHealthy xPatients H2: xHealthy xPatients H3: xHealthy xPatients H4: r 0 (ACE) (Simple reaction time) (Complex reaction time) (RT vs. QoL)

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## t-Test for ACE

H1: xHealthy xPatients H1: xHealthy = xPatients The data: Healthy n = 130 x = 78.8 s = 5.8 Patients n = 70 x = 66.6 s = 12.2

Two-tailed test!
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t-Test

0 t

47.3

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Review Questions:
41) What is ANOVA? 42) Describe the F-distribution. 43) How do we find critical values for F? 44) What is variance BETWEEN samples? Variance WITHIN samples?

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Review Questions:
45) How do we test hypotheses concerning the linear correlation coefficient?

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Review Questions:
46) What is aerobic fitness? 47) How do we measure aerobic fitness? 48) What are the pros and cons of the different methods?

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Review Questions:
49) What are the two types of body fat we discussed? 50) How do we measure body composition?
a) Direct techniques b) Indirect techniques

51) What are the pros and cons of the different methods?
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Review Questions:
52) Name four methods to assess diet 53) Which methods are prospective? 54) Which method is the cheapest to administer? 55) Which method is the most reliable?

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Review Questions:
56) What is Physical Activity? 57) What is exercise? 58) How can we measure PA objectively? 59) What tools can be used for self-reported PA?

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