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Job Analysis

Prof. S. P. Pati Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode Date: 28.01.13

What is Job Analysis?

Traditional view
The process of obtaining information about jobs
Who does? What exactly is done? Personally jobs are important for they are the source of status, standard of living, and self esteem Organizationally they are the means to organizational goal. Job is unchanging in spite of the various incumbents who occupy it

What is Job Analysis

Modern Analysis
Jobs are obsolete concepts Organization is a series of ever changing activities and
not unchanging jobs. Job is the final successful performance and not necessarily the adherence to a set of tasks This is also called the Job extinction view

What is Job Analysis?

Through Job Analysis, we decipher:
Job tasks: identifiable piece of work activity (typing a
letter) Job duties: duty is a larger work segment comprising of several tasks that are logically sequenced (sending letters) Job obligations: work that is not part of formal job yet has to be done (OCB) (being cordial) Sample

Use of Job Analysis

Human resource planning: It shows the relationships
between jobs in terms of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA). So helps in deciding between promotion and hiring strategies. Recruitment Placement and orientation Training Counselling Employee safety Performance appraisal Job design and redesign Job evaluation

Who should conduct job analysis?

Multiple sources of information should be employed

Information must be taken both from job incumbents

and supervisors.

Incumbents tell what actually happens while

supervisors are used to validate the claims as well as provide the desirable. Supervisors can place the jobs importance in organizational context.

External analysts should be employed to balance the


Who should conduct job analysis?

Which jobs to analyze?
Jobs that are critical to the success of the organization Jobs that are difficult to learn and perform, for it requires

extensive training (e.g. pilots) Jobs where new hires are recruited regularly (e.g. software programmers) Jobs created to facilitate the entry of women, the disabled personnel, ex-servicemen, minorities, displaced persons etc. (to check violations of rules) Jobs that need to be carried out differently due to emergence of new technologies (receptionist) When new jobs are added When jobs are eliminated and their duties are redistributed to other jobs.

Methods of collecting Job analysis data

Job performance Personal observation Analyst must observe average workers during average
conditions Analyst must observe without getting directly involved in the job Analyst must make note of the specific job needs and not the behaviours specific to particular workers. There must be a proper sample for generalization

Critical incident techniques Interview Panel of experts Diary method

Methods of collecting Job analysis data

Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
194 items divided to six major divisions Management position description questionnaire (MPDQ)

Impact of Behavioural Factors on JA

Exaggerate facts

Employee anxieties
Resistance to change Over emphasis on current efforts Management Straitjacket

Job description
It is a description of what the job holder does, how it is done,
under what condition it is done and why it is done.

Should contain:

Job title Code (if any) Department Job Summary Duties Working conditions/hours Report to

Sample JD

Problems with JD
It is not easy to reduce all the essential components of
a job into clear and precise statements

Job descriptions are sometimes not updated as job

duties change

Organizational and personnel flexibility can be reduced

if scope is documented.

Some instructions while writing JD

JD must indicate the nature and scope of jobs including
all important relationships

Brief, factual and precise using active voice. Avoid

statements of opinion. Details should not be compromised.

The extent of supervision available should also be

clearly stated

The reporting relationships must also be clearly


Job Specification
Job specification summarizes the human characteristics
needed for satisfactory job completion.

Summarizes the key qualification necessary in terms of

KSAs (Knowledge Skills and Abilities) for a person to do a job

Helps in selecting the appropriate manpower. Must contain:

Essential attributes: non-negotiable qualifications Desirable attributes: qualifications a person ought to possess Contra-indicators: attributes that will become a handicap to
successful job performance

Job Specification
The Job specification report should have the following:

Education Experience Skill, knowledge and abilities Work orientation factors Age

Sample JS Recruitment Ad = JS+JD

Job Design
Job Characteristics Model

Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback

MPS = [Skill variety + Task identity + Task significance]

/ 3 X Autonomy X Feedback

Job Design
Autonomy leads to Work Scheduling Compressed work week: 4 40 (fourty hours work in four days);
gives extended weekends. Flexible timings: 4 core hours (from 10 to 2), the other four being negotiable. Flexitour, Flexiplace, Gliding time, Maxiflex, Variable working hours

Task identity leads to Job enlargement Increases job scope. {e.g. IT workers dissatisfied} Increases appreciation, meaning and satisfaction Horizontal movement of job Task identity leads to Job rotation Reduces strain and stress Employees become self trainable

Job Enrichment
In particular, it is about designing jobs, that include a
greater variety of work content, require a higher level of knowledge and skill, give workers more autonomy and responsibility in terms of planning, directing and controlling their own performance, and provide the opportunity for personal growth and meaningful work experience.

It is the current practice of the industry

The Instructors Job Description

Purpose: The purpose of this exercise is to give you

Construct 4-6 membered groups that should not converse Groups should not converse and get different
questionnaires After working out in accordance with the questionnaires, mix the groups, compare and contrast.