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Chapter 8 Total Physical Response

Aji Prasetyo 2201410136 Monday 105-106 Language Teaching Theory

Introduction

Comprehension approach is a language instruction that important for gives listening comprehension. Research gave rise to the hypothesis that language learning should start with understanding and later proceed to production (Winitz 1981). Of course, the students speech will not be perfect, but gradually will be more and more like target-like language/native language. Natural approach is language instruction method developed by Krashen and Tarrells. this method share same feature with direct method. First the students listen to the teacher using target language communicatively in beginning of instruction. The students didnt speak but teacher help students by using picture or occasional words in students mother tongue, and also using expression.

Lexical approach is develop by Michael Lewis. This method is less concerned with students production, but it concern to receive abundant comprehensible input. Especially at lower levels, teacher talk extensively to their students. While requiring little or no verbal response from them. Teacher gives activities or exercise to teach them about lexical feature of target language. Total physical response (TPR) by James Ashers, Asher reasoned that the fastest, least stressful way to achieve any target language by follow directions uttered by instructor (without translation). That will be explain more in this chapter.

Experience

This lesson is based upon the one in Asher (1996). At the first time in the class, teacher introduce the method they will be using to studying English. The teacher teach a simple commands in English to the students and give example by using she as a model, and the teacher ask the students to follow her. Next, she continues to perform the action with students, but with changes of order of the command. She practice it over and over with students, and ask the students to give the command that they had learned to their friends in class. The class is over. No one except teacher has spoken a word, a few weeks later when she walk by the room she hear different voice. Students voice that use the command that have been learn in class with his/her friends.

Thinking about the experience


Observations 1 Principles The Teacher gives command in Meaning in the target language can target language and perform it often be conveyed through actions. with students. The students say nothing. Understanding of the target language should be develop before speaking.

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The teacher gives the commands Students can learn one part of the quite quickly. language rapidly by moving their body. The teacher sits down and issues The imperative is powerful linguistic commands to the volunteers. device through can direct students behavior. The teacher directs students other Students can learn through observing than the volunteers. actions as well as by performing the actions themselves.

Observations 6

Principles

The teacher introduces new It is very important that students feel command after she is satisfied successful. Feelings of success and that the first six have been low anxiety facilitate learning. mastered. The teacher changes the order of Students should not be made to the commands. memorize fixed routines. When the students make an error, Correction should be carried out in an the teacher repeats the command unobtrusive manner. while acting it out. The teacher give commands they Students must develop flexibility in have not heard before. understanding novel combination of target language chunks. The teacher says Jump to the Language learning is more effective desk everyone laughs. when it is fun.

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Observations 11

Principles

The teacher writes the new Spoken language should emphasize commands on the blackboard. over written language.

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A few weeks later, a student who Students will begin to speak when hasnt spoken before gives they are ready. commands.

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A students says shake hand with Students are expected to make errors your neighbor. when they first begin to speaking. Teacher should be tolerant of them.

Reviewing the principle


What are the goal of teachers who use TPR? What is the role of the teacher ? What is the role of the students ? What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process ? What is the nature of students-teacher interactions ? What is the nature of student-student interaction ? How are the feelings of the students dealt with ? How are the language viewed ? How is the culture viewed ? What area of language are emphasized ? What language skills are emphasized ? What is the role of the students native language ? How is evaluation accomplished ? How does the teacher respond to the student errors ?

Reviewing the techniques

Using command to direct behavior The commands are given to get students to perform action, and the action makes the meaning of command clear. Do not simply memorize the action sequence without ever connecting the action with the language. The language can be taught, and All grammar features can be communicated through imperatives. Example: Ingrid walk to the blackboard (Ingrid gets up and walk to the blackboard.) Class, if Ingrid walked to the blackboard, stand up (the class stand up.) Ingrid, write your name on the blackboard (Ingrid writes her name on the blackboard.) Class. If Ingrid wrote her name on the blackboard, sit down (the class sits down.)

Role reversal Students command their teacher and classmates to perform some actions. Students should not be encourage to speak until they are ready.

Action sequence As the students learn more and more of the target language, a longer series of command can be given, which together comprise a whole procedure. Example:

Take out a pen.

Take out a piece of paper.


Write a letter. Fold the paper. Put it in an envelop. Seal the envelop. Write the address on the envelop. Put a stamp on the envelop. Mail the letter. this series of command is called an action sequence.