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Frequency Hopping

Prepared by:
1)Mohammed A. AL-Rashed 2) Ammar AL-Twaijri
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Outline
Introduction to FH Features of FH Overlap between DSSS Its applications Fading Improvement FH drawback

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Frequency hopping
The first application for FH was in WW2

when they developing torpedoes to direct them by remote . The first FH was a mechanical system . It was developed in military applications only and didn't enter the civilian applications until the last decade .
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Features of FHSS
Frequency hopping is less vulnerable to

interference , because the frequency is always changed .

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Features of FHSS
It is very difficult to intercept a frequency

hopping communication ,one must jam the hole band to attack .

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Overlap between DSSS


Main problem: Near-far effect In cellular , it can do power control by BS. In non-cellular, it needs frequency

hopping DS is good choice for delivering high packet messages like LAN . DSSS is usually applied in wireless LANs or cordless devices .
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Advantages of FH
High security .
Protection against fading . Low probability of interception (LPI). Anti jamming (AJ). Allows multiple access .

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Challenges because of FH
Devices within communication range of

each other(Ad hoc network ) ,need to synchronize their frequency hopping pattern in order to communicate . A high processing gain is hard ,there is a need for fast-hopping over the carrier frequencies.

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Applications
Bluetooth channel is

represented by a pseudo random hopping sequence through the entire 79 RF frequencies Nominal hop rate of 1600 hops per second Channel Spacing is 1 MHz

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Applications (cont.)
FH in GSM
GSM Uplink and downlink bands are divided into 174 carrier frequencies using FDMA.
1 2 3
200kHz

4
200kHz

5
200kHz

6
200kHz

174
200kHz

200kHz 200kHz

35MHz

Uplink

down
35Mhz

35Mhz 45Mhz

Slow frequency hoping (216 hops/s) uses to reduce fading and co-channel interference (averaging the interference).

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Fading Improvement
Frequency response
21.5dB 10dB
-125 -110 -115 -120

-130

-135 397

397.5

398

398.5

399

399.5

400

-20 Pr at 880MHz Pr at 915MHz -40

Received power in dbm

-60 This plot is at: Pt=1W, ht=20m, hr=1.6m Gt=20, Gr=1 -80 Ver Pol 30m glass obstacle at 400m Rough ground, smooth obstacle -100

-120

-140 0 10

10

d(m)

10

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Fading Improvement
FH improves the received power depending on situation of MS.

Stationary MS
It is more efficient For MS that is at faded point FH makes averaging the signal level.
It reduces the signal level for MS that is at the maximum. It reduces the co-channel interference increases the S/I.

Moving MS
It introduces fast fading. As FH the fading is increased.

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Frequency Hopping Drawback


-100

Slow FH with 216 hops/s


-25 -30

-102 -104 -106

Fast Fading

-108 -110

-35

-112 -114 -116


-45

-40

-118 18.5

18.51 18.52 18.53 18.54 18.55 18.56 18.57 18.58 18.59

18.6

-50

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

-20

without FH at 900MHz with FH

-40 This plot is at: MS speed is 80m/s Pt=1W, ht=20m, hr=1.6m -60

Gt=20, Gr=1 Pr (dBm) Ver Pol 30m glass obstacle at 400m -80 Rough ground, smooth obstacle 216 hopping rate 80m/s speed -100

-120

-140

10

-4

10

-2

10

Time(S)

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Frequency Hopping Drawback


Fast frequency hopping with 1000 hops/second
-20 without FH at 915MHz wuth FH

-40

-60 This plot is at: Pr(dBm) Pt=1W, ht=20m, hr=1.6m Gt=20, Gr=1 -80 Ver Pol 30m glass obstacle at 400m Rough ground, smooth obstacle -100 1000 hopping rate 80m/s speed

-120

-140

10

-4

10

-2

10

Time(sec)

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Thanks for Attendance


Any Question
Prepared by:
1)Mohammed A. AL-Rashed 2) Ammar AL-Twaijri
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