loop Around
t v
, 0 ) (
=
node of Out
t i
0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3 2 1
= + + + + t v t v t v t v
N
Since KVL and KCL apply at any instance, then they must also be valid
in averages. Consider KVL,
0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3 2 1
= + + + + t i t i t i t i
N
0 ) 0 (
1
) (
1
) (
1
) (
1
) (
1
3 2 1
= = + + + +
} } } } }
+ + + + +
dt
T
dt t v
T
dt t v
T
dt t v
T
dt t v
T
T o
t
o
t
T o
t
o
t
N
T o
t
o
t
T o
t
o
t
T o
t
o
t
0
3 2 1
= + + + +
Navg avg avg avg
V V V V
The same reasoning applies to KCL
0
3 2 1
= + + + +
Navg avg avg avg
I I I I
KVL applies in the average sense
KCL applies in the average sense
Taken from Waveforms and Definitions PPT
9
V
in
+
V
out
i
L
L
C
i
C
I
out
i
in
Buck converter
+ v
L
V
in
+
V
out
L
C
I
out
i
in
+ 0 V
What do we learn from inductor voltage and capacitor
current in the average sense?
I
out
0 A
Assume large C so that
V
out
has very low ripple
Since V
out
has very low
ripple, then assume I
out
has very low ripple
10
The input/output equation for DCDC converters
usually comes by examining inductor voltages
V
in
+
V
out
L
C
I
out
i
in
+ (V
in
V
out
)
i
L
(i
L
I
out
)
Reverse biased, thus the
diode is open
,
dt
di
L v
L
L
=
L
V V
dt
di
out in L
=
,
dt
di
L V V
L
out in
=
,
out in L
V V v =
for DT seconds
Note if the switch stays closed, then V
out
= V
in
Switch closed for
DT seconds
11
V
in
+
V
out
L
C
I
out
V
out
+
i
L
(i
L
I
out
)
Switch open for (1 D)T seconds
i
L
continues to flow, thus the diode is closed. This
is the assumption of continuous conduction in the
inductor which is the normal operating condition.
,
dt
di
L v
L
L
=
L
V
dt
di
out L
=
,
dt
di
L V
L
out
=
,
out L
V v =
for (1D)T seconds
12
Since the average voltage across L is zero
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 1 =  +  =
out out in Lavg
V D V V D V
out out out in
V D V V D DV  +  =
in out
DV V =
From power balance,
out out in in
I V I V =
D
I
I
in
out
=
, so
The input/output equation becomes
Note even though i
in
is not constant
(i.e., i
in
has harmonics), the input power
is still simply V
in
I
in
because V
in
has no
harmonics
13
Examine the inductor current
Switch closed,
Switch open,
L
V V
dt
di
V V v
out in L
out in L
= = ,
L
V
dt
di
V v
out L
out L
= = ,
sec / A
L
V V
out in
DT (1 D)T
T
I
max
I
min
I
avg
= I
out
From geometry, I
avg
= I
out
is halfway
between I
max
and I
min
sec / A
L
V
out
I
i
L
Periodic finishes
a period where it
started
14
Effect of raising and lowering I
out
while
holding V
in
, V
out
, f, and L constant
i
L
I
I
Raise I
out
I
Lower I
out
I is unchanged
Lowering I
out
(and, therefore, P
out
) moves the circuit
toward discontinuous operation
15
Effect of raising and lowering f while
holding V
in
, V
out
, I
out
, and L constant
i
L
Raise f
Lower f
Slopes of i
L
are unchanged
Lowering f increases I and moves the circuit toward
discontinuous operation
16
i
L
Effect of raising and lowering L while
holding V
in
, V
out
, I
out
and f constant
Raise L
Lower L
Lowering L increases I and moves the circuit toward
discontinuous operation
17
RMS of common periodic waveforms, cont.
T
T T
rms
t
T
V
dt t
T
V
dt t
T
V
T
V
0
3
3
2
0
2
3
2
0
2
2
3
1
= =
(
=
} }
T
V
0
3
V
V
rms
=
Sawtooth
Taken from Waveforms and Definitions PPT
18
RMS of common periodic waveforms, cont.
Using the power concept, it is easy to reason that the following waveforms
would all produce the same average power to a resistor, and thus their rms
values are identical and equal to the previous example
V
0
V
0
V
0
0
V
V
0
3
V
V
rms
=
V
0
V
0
Taken from Waveforms and Definitions PPT
19
RMS of common periodic waveforms, cont.
Now, consider a useful example, based upon a waveform that is often seen in
DCDC converter currents. Decompose the waveform into its ripple, plus its
minimum value.
( )
min max
I I
0
) (t i
A
the ripple
+
0
min
I
the minimum value
) (t i
max
I
min
I
=
( )
2
min max
I I
I
avg
+
=
avg
I
Taken from Waveforms and Definitions PPT
20
RMS of common periodic waveforms, cont.
( ) { }
2
min
2
) ( I t i Avg I
rms
+ =
A
{ }
2
min min
2 2
) ( 2 ) ( I I t i t i Avg I
rms
+  + =
A A
{ } { }
2
min min
2 2
) ( 2 ) ( I t i Avg I t i Avg I
rms
+  + =
A A
( ) ( )
2
min
min max
min
2
min max 2
2
2
3
I
I I
I
I I
I
rms
+
 +
=
2
min min
2
2
3
I I I
I
I
PP
PP
rms
+ + =
min max
I I I
PP
= Define
Taken from Waveforms and Definitions PPT
21
RMS of common periodic waveforms, cont.
2
min
PP
avg
I
I I =
2
2
2
2 2 3

.

\

+

.

\

+ =
PP
avg PP
PP
avg
PP
rms
I
I I
I
I
I
I
4 2 3
2
2
2 2
2 PP
PP avg avg
PP
PP avg
PP
rms
I
I I I
I
I I
I
I + + + =
2
2 2
2
4 3
avg
PP PP
rms
I
I I
I + =
Recognize that
12
2
2 2
PP
avg rms
I
I I + =
avg
I
) (t i
min max
I I I
PP
=
( )
2
min max
I I
I
avg
+
=
Taken from Waveforms and Definitions PPT
22
Inductor current rating
( )
2 2 2 2 2
12
1
12
1
I I I I I
out pp avg Lrms
A + = + =
( )
2 2 2 2
3
4
2
12
1
out out out Lrms
I I I I = + = A
Max impact of I on the rms current occurs at the boundary of
continuous/discontinuous conduction, where I =2I
out
out Lrms
I I
3
2
=
2I
out
0
I
avg
= I
out
I
i
L
Use max
23
Capacitor current and current rating
( )
2 2 2 2 2
3
1
0 2
12
1
out out avg Crms
I I I I + = + =
i
L
L
C
I
out
(i
L
I
out
)
I
out
I
out
0
I
Max rms current occurs at the boundary of continuous/discontinuous
conduction, where I =2I
out
3
out
Crms
I
I =
Use max
i
C
= (i
L
I
out
)
Note raising f or L, which lowers
I, reduces the capacitor current
24
MOSFET and diode currents and current ratings
i
L
L
C
I
out
(i
L
I
out
)
out rms
I I
3
2
=
Use max
2I
out
0
I
out
i
in
2I
out
0
I
out
Take worst case D for each
25
Worstcase load ripple voltage
Cf
I
C
I T
C
I
T
C
Q
V
out out
out
4 4
2 2
1
=

=
 
= =
A
A
I
out
I
out
0
T/2
C charging
i
C
= (i
L
I
out
)
During the charging period, the C voltage moves from the min to the max.
The area of the triangle shown above gives the peaktopeak ripple voltage.
Raising f or L reduces the load voltage ripple
26
V
in
+
V
out
i
L
L
C
i
C
I
out
V
in
+
V
out
i
L
L
C
i
C
I
out
i
in
Voltage ratings
Diode sees V
in
MOSFET sees V
in
C sees V
out
Diode and MOSFET, use 2V
in
Capacitor, use 1.5V
out
Switch Closed
Switch Open
27
There is a 3
rd
state discontinuous
V
in
+
V
out
L
C
I
out
Occurs for light loads, or low operating frequencies, where
the inductor current eventually hits zero during the switch
open state
The diode opens to prevent backward current flow
The small capacitances of the MOSFET and diode, acting in
parallel with each other as a net parasitic capacitance,
interact with L to produce an oscillation
The output C is in series with the net parasitic capacitance,
but C is so large that it can be ignored in the oscillation
phenomenon
I
out
28
Inductor voltage showing oscillation during
discontinuous current operation
~ 650kHz. With L = 100H, this corresponds
to net parasitic C = 0.6nF
v
L
= (V
in
V
out
)
v
L
= V
out
Switch open
Switch
closed
29
Onset of the discontinuous state
sec / A
L
V
out
( )
( )
f L
D V
T D
L
V
I
onset
out
onset
out
out
=  =
1
1 2
2I
out
0
I
avg
= I
out
i
L
(1 D)T
f I
V
L
out
out
2
> guarantees continuous conduction
use max
use min
( )
f I
D V
L
out
out
onset
2
1
=
Then, considering the worst case (i.e., D 0),
30
Impedance matching
out
out
load
I
V
R =
equiv
R
DCDC Buck
Converter
+
V
in
+
V
out
= DV
in
I
out
= I
in
/ D
I
in
+
V
in
I
in
2 2
D
R
D I
V
D I
D
V
I
V
R
load
out
out
out
out
in
in
equiv
=

=

= =
Equivalent from
source perspective
Source
So, the buck converter
makes the load
resistance look larger
to the source
31
Example of drawing maximum power from
solar panel
PV Station 13, Bright Sun, Dec. 6, 2002
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
V(panel)  volts
I

a
m
p
s
I
sc
V
oc
P
max
is approx. 130W
(occurs at 29V, 4.5A)
O = = 44 . 6
5 . 4
29
A
V
R
load
For max power from
panels at this solar
intensity level, attach
IV characteristic of 6.44 resistor
But as the sun conditions
change, the max power
resistance must also
change
32
Connect a 2 resistor directly, extract only 55W
PV Station 13, Bright Sun, Dec. 6, 2002
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
V(panel)  volts
I

a
m
p
s
130W
55W
56 . 0
44 . 6
2
,
2
= = = =
equiv
load load
equiv
R
R
D
D
R
R
To draw maximum power (130W), connect a buck converter between the
panel and the load resistor, and use D to modify the equivalent load
resistance seen by the source so that maximum power is transferred
33
V
panel
+
V
out
i
L
L
C
i
C
I
out
i
panel
Buck converter for solar applications
+ v
L
Put a capacitor here to provide the
ripple current required by the
opening and closing of the MOSFET
The panel needs a ripplefree current to stay on the max power point.
Wiring inductance reacts to the current switching with large voltage spikes.
In that way, the panel current can be ripple
free and the voltage spikes can be controlled
We use a 10F, 50V, 10A highfrequency bipolar (unpolarized) capacitor
34
WorstCase Component Ratings Comparisons
for DCDC Converters
Converter
Type
Input Inductor
Current
(Arms)
Output
Capacitor
Voltage
Output Capacitor
Current (Arms)
Diode and
MOSFET
Voltage
Diode and
MOSFET
Current
(Arms)
Buck
out
I
3
2
1.5
out
V
out
I
3
1
2
in
V
out
I
3
2
10A 10A 10A 40V 40V
Likely worstcase buck situation
5.66A 200V, 250V 16A, 20A
Our components
9A 250V
Our M (MOSFET). 250V, 20A
Our L. 100H, 9A
Our C. 1500F, 250V, 5.66A pp
Our D (Diode). 200V, 16A
BUCK DESIGN
35
Comparisons of Output Capacitor Ripple Voltage
Converter Type Volts (peaktopeak)
Buck
Cf
I
out
4
10A
1500F 50kHz
0.033V
BUCK DESIGN
Our M (MOSFET). 250V, 20A
Our L. 100H, 9A
Our C. 1500F, 250V, 5.66A pp
Our D (Diode). 200V, 16A
36
Minimum Inductance Values Needed to
Guarantee Continuous Current
Converter Type For Continuous
Current in the Input
Inductor
For Continuous
Current in L2
Buck
f I
V
L
out
out
2
>
40V
2A 50kHz
200H
BUCK DESIGN
Our M (MOSFET). 250V, 20A
Our L. 100H, 9A
Our C. 1500F, 250V, 5.66A pp
Our D (Diode). 200V, 16A